BULLYINGPrevention and Intervention MSVU Critical Language Awareness Nancy Barillaro, Salini Francis-Xavier, Kety Gizzi, Annamaria Iacobelli, Alexandra Mackie
Critical Steps To Understanding Bullying • Power: Who bullies and why? Who has the resolutions to prevent and intervene? • Diversity: Who is bullied and why? Who needs support to get out of bullying situations? • Access: Who does not have easy access to a safe location or situation? • Design: What designs/discourses support the allowing of bullying to occur? • Redesign: What might one do to prevent and intervene when bullying occurs?
Connections To Students Lives What memories do you have about bullying in school? Consider: As a teacher, how can you create Heroes in the Hallway?
What Students Will Need To Know What Is Bullying? “Bullying is typically a form of repeated, persistent and aggressive behaviour directed at an individual or individuals that is intended to cause (or should be known to cause) fear and distress and/or harmto another person’s body, feelings, self-esteem or reputation. Bullying occurs in a context where there is a real or perceived power imbalance.”
BULLYING IS NOT… • Normal childhood conflict like sibling rivalry or 1 to 1 fighting or arguing • An act of impulsiveaggression • An indiscriminate behaviour, eg, no intended victim • A random act
PREVALENCE RATE • Bullying occurs once every 7 minutes in the schoolyard • Bullying occurs once every 25 minutes in the classroom • Bullying stops within 10 seconds57% of the time when peers intervene • 85% of students indicate that watching bullying makes them uncomfortable • Increases after 8 years of age (grade 3), reaches a peak in grades 6-8 • More males than females are bullied (Hawkins, D.L., Pepler, D.J., & Craig, W.M., 2001)
THE FACE OF THE BULLY Today's bully is no longer just the tough kid who pushes others around and steals their lunch money. Today's bully could be any student, in any school.
THE FACE OF THE VICTIM • smaller or weaker than other students; • more anxious, quiet, or insecurethan others; • does not have any reliable friends; • differs from other children in some way—learning disability, physical handicap, speech or language, skin color, clothes; • cries easily; • feels lonely and disliked; • won’t challenge a bully.
TYPES OF BULLYING 1. Verbal bullying including derogatory comments and bad names 2. Bullying through social exclusion or isolation 3. Physical bullying such as hitting, kicking, shoving, and spitting 4. Bullying through spreading lies and false rumours 5. Having money or other things taken or damaged by students who bully
TYPES OF BULLYING (continued) 6. Being threatened or forced to do things by students who bully 7. Racial bullying 8. Sexual bullying 9. Cyber bullying (via cell phone or Internet) *Look for Facebook 101 sessions
How The Problematic Is Instantiated In Texts & Practices What Schools Must Do 1. As per PPM144, each school must have a Safe Schools Action Team. 2. As per Bill 157, all school board employees and transportation providers must report bullying to the principal.
WHAT SCHOOLS MUST DO: 3. Principals must investigate all incidents, report to parents of victims and offer resources to support victims and their families, and apply progressive discipline, taking mitigating and other circumstances into account, with the aim of changing behaviour, rather than punishment. Police must be involved for students over twelve where criminal activity (eg, assault) is suspected.
HOW DO YOU PREVENT BULLYING? Create a positive school culture: • Staff and students feel safe; • Healthy and inclusive relationships are promoted; • Students encouraged to be positive leaders in their school community; • All partners are actively engaged;
Bullying prevention & awareness-raising strategies are reinforced through programs addressing discrimination based on such factors as age, race, sexual orientation, gender, faith, disability, ethnicity, & socio-economic disadvantage; • Improvement of learning outcomes for students is emphasized. (Ontario Ministry of Education PPM144, p.2)
BE PROACTIVE • Build an inclusive classroom! • Incorporate character development programs (eg, TRIBES, Fill Your Bucket) • Develop opportunities for student involvement (eg, PROPS Program) • Ensure Parent Engagement (communication is key!)
Social EffectsHOW DO YOU RESPOND TO BULLYING? An effective response to bullying must be comprehensive, taking into consideration all students involved in the bullying incident.
CURRICULUM CONNECTIONS AND LEARNING SKILLS RUBRICS • Critical thinking and critical literacy in health and physical education (supported by the living skills component of the curriculum) • Focus of learning in the Healthy Living Strand • Learning Skills – development of responsibility, collaboration, initiative, self-regulation • Ask the Teacher-Librarian for books and resources about bullying
Possibilities For Making A Difference • Incorporate literature about bullying • Create inquiry about bullying • Have regular community circles and/or class meetings
Consistently reinforce character development program initiatives (eg, TRIBES agreements) • Organize presentations for the students about bullying • Have clubs for students to join at break times • Provide support to students (eg, fighting the culture of “not snitching”), make it OK to ask for help for themselves or someone else
And most importantly!!! Create an inclusive classroom – make all students feel safe with you and with each other!!!
SCHOOL-WIDE INITIATIVES • Bullying Prevention Week (The Legislative Assembly of Ontario passed that it is the third week of every November.) • Day of Pink • Parent Engagement
BULLYING PREVENTION WEEK Create a pledge: BULLYING PLEDGE I, as part of the (insert school name here) communitywill always stop and preventany type of bullying. I will treat everyone as an equal. • Have every class and student sign the pledge to show agreement to the pledge and post them in each classroom.
Create signs: BULLYING PREVENTION WEEK!!! • Remember to always follow the Tribes agreements • Remember to use your words to solve problems • If you need help, ask an adult
Have a poster contest and post them around the school: • As part of Bullying Prevention Week we are having a poster contest!!! • Create a poster of a Tribes agreement! You can choose the agreement – mutual respect, attentive listening, right to pass, appreciations/no put downs. • Your poster could be displayed in the classrooms in our school and in our hallways!
DAY OF PINK • People across Canada are being asked to wear pink as a sign of our pledge to prevent and intervene in bullying situations. • Why wear pink? In Nova Scotia a high school freshman boy wore a pink shirt to school one day. He was bullied by other students for wearing the shirt. The next day, in support of the student who was bullied, two senior boys came to school with 75 pink tank tops which they gave to male students to wear, including the freshman who had been bullied. Other students also took up the cause and started wearing pink to school. This show of support has since led to Pink Day, an anti-bullying day across the country. www.dayofpink.org
PARENT ENGAGEMENT • Include information in your class, grade team and school newslettersabout initiatives you are undertaking to prevent bullying (eg, information about TRIBES, what bullying is and is not (the term “bullying” is widely misunderstood)). • Include information on your teacher website about what you are doing to create an inclusive classroom. • Safe Schools Action Teams exist in each school and parent involvement is mandatory.
BE AWARE OF… • Student Conversations – know what they’re talking about, ask questions • Report to the principal anything you are concerned about regarding student safety
Always remember… Support is needed for allstudents involved in a bullying situation: • the student who bullies; • the bullied student; • and the student who watches
HOW TO HANDLE HARASSMENT IN THE HALLWAYS IN THREE MINUTES 1. STOP the harassment 2. IDENTIFY the harassment 3. BROADEN the response 4. ASK for change in future behaviour (Toronto District School Board)
Always remember that… ALL OF OUR STUDENTS ARE ALL OF OUR STUDENTS! INTERVENE!