Bullying Prevention and Positive Behavior Intervention & Support Margaret A. Gannon, Southeast PBIS Coordinator Correy Watkins, Central PBIS Coordinator
What is Bullying? Bullying is when a person is picked on over and over again by an individual or group with more power, either in terms of physical strength or social standing.
Nothing Awareness-raising efforts Reporting, tracking Zero tolerance (school exclusion) Individual treatment Group treatment Self-esteem enhancement for bullies Mediation, conflict resolution programs Curricular approaches and… Range of Approaches Taken by Schools to Address Bullying COMPREHENSIVE APPROACHES such as PBIS!
PBIS and Bullying Principles It is critical to develop a school climate that: • Is supportive of racial, cultural, and other forms of diversity • Is warm • Has clear expectations for students and staff that are taught and reinforced • Has consequences for unacceptable behavior • Has positive interest • Has involvement from adults • Addresses hate crimes and conflicts in school and the community
The goal of Bully Prevention-PBIS (BP-PBIS) is to reduce peer maintained problem behavior outside of the classroom
BP-PBIS • Requires only a small amount of additional resources from the school • Schools are required to first maintain effective SW systems to at least 80% on the SET • Having SW PBIS already in place will likely increase community buy-in, resource allocation, and on-going professional support
BP-PBIS (continued) • Focuses on improvement of behaviors that are specific, observable, and measurable. • Behavior definitions will not speculate on: • The intent of the behavior • The power of the individuals involved • The frequency of its occurrence • Single incidents of problem behavior between children of similar power will be responded to in an equal manner.
Six Key Features of BP-PBIS • The use of empirically-tested instructional principles to teach expected behavior outside the classroom to all students. • The monitoring and acknowledgement of students for engaging in appropriate behavior outside the classroom. • Specific instruction and pre-correction to prevent bullying behavior from being rewarded by victims or bystanders.
Six Key Features of BP-PBIS (continued) • The correction of problem behaviors using a consistently administered continuum of consequences. • The collection and use of information about student behavior to evaluate and guide decision making. • The establishment of a team that develops, implements, and manages the BP-PBIS effort in a school.
School-Wide Interventions • Train all school personnel to recognize signs of bullying • Develop school expectations regarding against bullying (e.g., safety) • Use consistent consequences • Increase supervision in “hot spots” • Hold staff discussion groups • Actively involve parents
Interventions at the Classroom Level • Teach, post, and discuss school expectations and rules • Teach lessons on topics, such as gossip, inappropriate remarks, and cyber bullying • Consistently use positive reinforcement and consequences • Incorporate bullying themes across the curriculum • Hold regular class meetings
Assumptions / Goals Assumptions School is implementing at the Universal level (behavioral expectations) Bullying continues to be a problem Goals Define why bullying is worth addressing Provide a comprehensive model for bully prevention Provide description of core elements of UNIVERSAL level bully prevention Provide data demonstrating (a) reduction in bullying and (b) improved perception of school safety. 12
The Logic:Why Invest in Bully Prevention? The National School Safety Center (NSSC) called bullying the most enduring and underrated problem in U.S. schools. (Beale, 2001) Nearly 30 percent of students have reported being involved in bullying as either a perpetrator or a victim. (Nansel, et al., 2001; Swearer & Espelage, 2004). Victims and perpetrators of bullying are more likely to skip and/or drop out of school. (Berthold & Hoover, 2000; Neary & Joseph, 1994) Victims and perpetrators of bullying are more likely to suffer from underachievement and sub-potential performance in employment settings. (Carney & Merrell, 2001; NSSC, 1995).
Most bully prevention programs focus on the bully and the victim • Problem #1: Inadvertent “teaching of bullying” • Problem #2: Blame the bully • Problem #3: Ignore role of “bystanders” • Problem #4: Initial effects without sustained impact. • Problem #5: Expensive effort
What do we need? • Bully prevention that “fits” with existing behavior support efforts • Bully PREVENTION, not just remediation • Bully prevention that is sustainable.
Bully Prevention in Positive Behavior Intervention & Support:The Foundation
Bullying behavior occurs in many forms, and locations, but typically involves student-student interactions. Bullying is seldom maintained by feedback from adults What rewards Bullying Behavior? Likely many different rewards are effective. Most common are: Attention from bystanders Attention and reaction of “victim” Access to resources (materials, activity) Self-delivered reward
Consider the smallest change that could make the biggest impact on bullying: Remove the “pay off” (e.g., praise, attention, recognition) that follows bullying. Do this without: teaching bullying or denigrating children who engage in bulling.
Bully Prevention Individual Student Supports Bully Victim Teach All Students Practice With Some Students Support Staff Important School-wide Behavioral Expectations Collect and use data for decision-making
Teach All Students Teach school-wide expectations (include “be respectful”) Teach students to recognize “respectful” versus “non-respectful” behavior. Teach the “pay off” for not being respectful You get attention (which comes in many forms) You get materials/activities Teach what to do if you experience non-respectful behavior. “Stop” Walk Away Talk (Get Help)
Why Does Non-respectful Behavior Keep Happening? Discuss why kids exhibit problem behavior outside the classroom Peer attention comes in many forms: Arguing with someone that teases you Laughing at someone being picked on Watching problem behavior and doing nothing The candle under a glass cup
The Stop Signal – A Three Step Response • Stop • Walk • Talk
The Stop Signal(The entire school must use the same stop signal) • Teach the school-wide stop signal for problem behavior • Model the use of stop signal when they experience problem behavior or they see another student experiencing problem behavior • Practice and review how the Stop Signal should look and sound: • Firm hand signal • Clear voice
Teach the “Stop Signal” • If someone is directing problem behavior to you, or someone else, tell them to “stop.” • Because talking is hard in emotional situations… always include a physical “signal” to stop.
Examples of When to Use the Stop Signal • Alisha pokes Ronnie in the back over and over while in line • Daniel steals the ball away from Noah when they are not playing a game that involves stealing. • Roberta teases Rachel and calls her a derogatory name.
Walk Away Sometimes even when students tell others to stop, the problem behavior will continue. When this happens, students are to walk away from the problem behavior
Walk Away • Model “walking away” when students experience continued problem behavior or when they see another student experiencing continued problem behavior. • Walking away removes the reinforcement for problem behavior • Teach students to encourage one another when they use the appropriate response • Practice “walking away” with student volunteers • Give examples of when to walk away and at least one of when not to walk away
Remember: walking away removes the reinforcement for problem behavior.Teach students to encourage one another when they use the appropriate response.
Talk: Report Problems to an Adult Teach students that even when they use stop and they walk away from the problem, sometimes students will continue to behave inappropriately toward them. When that happens, students should “talk” to an adult.
Talk • Model the talk technique students should use when they experience continued problem behavior or when they see another student experiencing continued problem behavior.
Please Note!! • If any student is in danger, the “stop” and “walk away” steps should be skipped, and the incident should be reported immediately.
Talking When the student has tried to solve the problem him/herself and has used the stop and walk steps first: Did the student request “stop”? Did the student “walk away”? Tattling When a student does not use the stop and walk way steps before talking to an adult When the student’s goal is to get the other person in trouble Talking versus Tattling
Talk • Describe to students how they should expect adults to respond to “talk” • Adults will ask you what the problem is • They will ask if you said stop • They will ask if you walked away calmly • Practice “talk” with student volunteers at the front of the class. • Be sure to use examples of how to “talk” and at least one example of when not to “talk”
Review Stop/Walk/Talk • Test students orally on how they should respond to various situations involving problem behavior • Include questions that involve each possible scenario: • Using “Stop”, “Walk”, and “Talk” • Responding to “Stop”, “Walk”, and “Talk”
Teaching a Reply (What to do when YOU are asked to “stop”) • Eventually, every student will be told to stop. When this happens, they should do the following things: • Stop what they are doing • Take a deep breath • Go about their day (no big deal) • These steps should be followed even when they don’t agree with the “stop”
Extra Practice with Some Students For students with high rates of physical and verbal aggression. Pre-correction On-site practice For students who are more likely to be victims who reward physical and verbal aggression.
When the child did it right… Adults initiate the following interaction with the Perpetrator: Reinforce the student for discussing the problem with you "Did ______ tell you to stop?" If yes: "How did you respond?" Follow with step 2 If no: Practice the 3 step response. "Did ______ walk away?" If yes: "How did you respond?" Follow with step 3 If no: Practice the 3 step response. Practice the 3 step response. The amount of practice depends on the severity and frequency of problem behavior
Rewarding Appropriate Behavior Effective Generalization requires the prompt reinforcement of appropriate behavior, the FIRST time it is attempted Look for students that use the three step response appropriately and reward Students that struggle with problem behavior (either as victim or perpetrator) are less likely to attempt new approaches. Reward them for efforts in the right direction.
Bully Prevention in PBIS Faculty Follow-Up
Supporting Staff Behavior When any problem behavior is reported, adults follow a specific response sequence: Reinforce the student for reporting the problem behavior (i.e., "I'm glad you told me.") Ask who, what, when and where. Ensure the student’s safety. Is the bullying still happening? Is the reporting child at risk? Fear of revenge? What does the student need to feel safe? What is the severity of the situation "Did you tell the student to stop?" (If yes, praise the student for using an appropriate response. If no, practice) "Did you walk away from the problem behavior?" (If yes, praise student for using appropriate response. If no, practice.)
Roles of BP-PBIS Implementation at Your School • PBIS Team • Takes the lead with implementation • Determines a School-wide Stop Signal • Develops schedule for student BP training (initial and follow-up) • Plans ongoing support of administrators and teachers • Evaluates student outcome data (ODRs) • Implementation Checklist • Faculty Follow Up • Working with the district to maintain efforts
Teachers Reads Manual Delivers Initial Lessons and Follow up lessons Incident Reports Practice with Students Reinforce Appropriate Behavior Give feedback to PBIS team Administrators Reads Manual Practice with students Check-ins Incident Reports Reinforce! Roles (continued)
Practice Break up into groups of two and: For three minutes, practice the “stop” response, along with how to reply when someone uses the stop response on you. (Make sure that each person is able to practice each roll) • Next, break up into groups of four and: • Practice the entire SWT response: Separate roles into: Supervisor, Perpetrator, Victim, and Bystander.Try to find situations where Stop/Walk/Talk may not be enough.
BP-PBIS Effectiveness Survey • Staff survey • Can be completed weekly, monthly, etc., depending on the needs of the school • Decision making flow chart • Can assist in meaningful decisions that impact the outcomes of the program.
To Learn More • http://www.wrightslaw.com/nltr/07/nl.0417.htm • http://www.pbis.org • http://www.ryanpatrickhalligan.org • J.H. Hoover, R. Oliver, and R.J. Hazler, "Bullying: Perceptions of adolescent victims in Midwestern USA," School Psychology International 13:5-16,1992. • S. Ross, R. Horner, and B. Stiller, Bully Prevention in Positive Behavior Intervention & Support
Margaret A. Gannonmargaret_gannon@pender.k12.nc.usCorrey Watkinscwatkins@wcsk12.org