Oregon Intervention System2012 Positive Behavior Support: Understanding, Preventing and Responding to Challenging Behavior
Workshop Ground RulesStandards for Workshop Behavior • Behave in a professional manner! • Demonstrate respect for others: • Be considerate • Be on time for class and from breaks • Turn cell phones and pagers off • Respect confidentiality!
OIS Certification Requirements • Attend and participate in the entire workshop • Demonstrate a professional attitude in class toward materials & philosophy • Participate in group activities & exercises • Demonstrate an ability to understand and safely perform all physical techniques • Complete all written and performance exercises
This Workshop will include: • Chapter 1: Support • Chapter 2: Holistic Approach to Human Behavior • Chapter 3: Our Behavior • Chapter 4: Conflict and Power Struggles • Chapter 5: Behavior Management Skills • Chapter 6: Maintaining Health and Safety
What Exactly is OIS? OIS is a process for implementing Positive Behavior Supports (PBIS) and, if necessary, safe intervention in community programs.
OIS evolves… • OIS, like the field of behavioral sciences, has changed over the years. • There are many practices of the past are neither ethical nor successful • OIS is constantly revised as research and technology advances • OIS reflects current “best practices”
We have the luxury… • Of a very progressive State • Of the reputation and resources of the University of Oregon • Of the resources of the Association of Positive Behavior Support • Of the contributions of many OIS Instructors
Chapter 1 What is support?
One way to define support Anything that we can do that will keep moving the individual toward a higher quality of life.
What Do “Supports” Include? • Teaching/Showing • Adding Skills • Eliminating Barriers Purpose: To enable an individual to fully participate in life activities
Perhaps the most important concept of support is: Being there… • Spending a few minutes just checking in • Ask a few questions about her/his day • Take some time to “just hang out” without being asked • Everyone needs to be heard, listened and cared about.
Support is also Keeping People Safe • Occasionally people engage in challenging behavior • Sometimes it is necessary to provide protective physical support • OIS includes “Protective Physical Intervention” • Only as a last resort!
OIS Values • Everyone deserves a high Quality Of Life • The better Quality of Life, the fewer challenging behaviors we see. • Some people need significant supports • Support is best provided with a person-centered emphasis • Supports must be respectful and maintain the person’s dignity
Values Video Clip • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8zFKFshINuw
OIS Values • We are more alike the people we support than we are different • We need to feel supported to best support others • Challenging behavior can compromise the quality of life • Class Exercise
Appearance “An outward aspect of somebody or something that creates a particular impression” and “The way somebody or something looks or seems to other people.”
Appearance and Dress • How do we dress? • Safe, modest & comfortable • Leave items home if they interfere • What does grooming say about us? • Awareness of our scents & smells • Individual considerations • How are the individuals we support dressed?
First Impressions • What is the first thing you notice about others? • Does that first impression affect how you interact with the person? • Can that first impression be changed?
Stereotypes • Stereotypes are often formed by a lack of knowledge or information. • In the absence of reliable information, we tend to: • Make judgments based upon our previous experiences • Repeat responses that we have used in the past
Stereotypes • How does the general public stereotype individuals with intellectual disabilities? • How do you stereotype individuals with challenging behaviors? • How does that affect the person you support? • What can you do to change these stereotypes?
Values Primary • Your feeling of the value of the work itself Secondary (outside influences) • Consequences of the work • The “prestige” of your work
Beliefs • Beliefs are the assumptions we make about ourselves, about others in the world and about how we expect things to be. • Beliefs are about how we think things really are, what we think is really true and what therefore we expect as likely consequences that will follow from our behavior.
Attitudes Attitudes are the established ways of responding to people and situations that we have learned, based on the values, beliefs and assumptions we hold. • They are shaped by life experiences • Directly affect many aspects of our jobs • Directly influence how we interact with and support individuals
Moods Moods are determined by • Biology • Perspective • Personality • Work situation • Outside of work
Motivations Motivation The process that initiates, guides, and maintains goal-oriented behaviors. • Internal (intrinsic) goals: What drives us? • External (extrinsic) goals: What drives us?
Culture “The beliefs, customs, practices, and social behavior of a particular nation or people” and/or “A group of people whose shared beliefs and practices identify the particular place, class, or time to which they belong.”
Is there a “Culture” at work? Class Exercise • Describe your work Culture • Which elements of the work culture contribute to support? • Which elements might be improved?
Class Exercise If opinions are so difficult to change… • How does this affect our work? • How can we get over our social cultural stereotypes? • How can we keep from developing new stereotypes? • How can we relearn?
When We Don’t Feel Supported, We May • Resist new ideas and supports • Become cynical and complacent
Risks for School Support Staff On the job, there is a risk that we may: • Be injured • Contribute to an avoidable injury • Not follow approved OIS procedures resulting in injury or abuse • Become involved in a Protective Services Investigation (PSI) or other abuse investigation
Intervention and Abuse Abusive Techniques Techniques that deliberately humiliate or cause pain/discomfort to the individual for which intervention is used • There are NO circumstances under which abusive techniques should be used.
Intervention and Abuse Abuse of Techniques Correctly applied techniques used in circumstances when they are unnecessary, before really necessary, for too long of a period of time after an individual is no longer a threat to health/safety or when unauthorized restraints or other interventions are applied.
Intervention and Abuse • Neglect occurs when the support person fails to act in a timely manner to decrease the chances of harm. • Neglect can also include a FAILURE to follow approved behavior support plans.
Class Exercise Develop a list of at least 5 staff strategies in each of the following categories:
Our Responsibilities as School Support Staff • Know the people you support! • Be observant • Be well-versed on all support documents • Maintain required certifications • Practice skills regularly • Failure to practice can have serious consequences
DISCLAIMER The processes outlined in the OIS workshop have been proven safe and effective when applied correctly. However, proper implementation is the responsibility of the persons involved. Instruction cannot be substituted for good judgment.
Chapter Review Topics Covered: • Support, how it effects all concerned • Values, both OIS and our own • Our Beliefs, Attitudes, Mood, and Motivation • First Impressions • Work Culture • Risks, Abuse of Technique, Abusive Technique, and Neglect • What stood out for you?
Chapter 2 Human Behavior: A Holistic Approach
Cognitive Functioning • Developmental Factors • Trauma • Genetics • Environmental issues during development • Medication side-effects • Seizure disorders & consequent treatment • Abuse/Neglect • Nutrition
Executive FunctioningCommon Components • Initiate: Start, make plans • Plan and Organize: Stop, think, and plan a strategy • Organization: Time management, track more than one item/event • Inhibit:Stay on task, avoid distractions, control impulsivity • Emotional Control:Resilient when frustrated • Working Memory: Hold and work on two mental concepts • Shift:Can move from one activity to another easily