School-wide Positive Behavior Support George Sugai & Susan Barrett OSEP Center on PBIS University of Connecticut August 19, 2009 www.pbis.org www.pbismaryland.org
PURPOSE “Big Ideas” of School-wide Positive Behavior Support • What is SWPBS? • SWPBS & Response-to-Intervention • September Organizer (Sep 22-24) • Classroom Management – Getting Started
Goals/Objectives • What is “SWPBS?” • Where does SWPBS fit w/in RtI? • Who benefits from SWPBS? • What 4 SWPBS elements work together? • What is “continuum of SWPBS?”
HR 2597 May 21, 2009“Positive Behavior for Safe & Effective Schools” • ESEA funds for SWPBS • Provisions • Professional development • Safe & Drug Free Communities • Early intervening services & counseling programs • Office of specialized instructional supports
American Recovery & Reinvestment ActIDEA & Title Recovery Funds • Data systems • E.g., SWIS • SWPBS implementation, e.g., • Early Intervening Services IDEA • School-wide Programs (ESEA Title I) • Professional Development (ESEA Title II)
Context Matters: Examples Individual Student vs. School-wide
“Reiko” Assessments indicate that Reiko performs in average to above average range in most academic areas. However, her teacher has noticed Reiko’s frequent talking & asking & answering questions without raising her hand has become an annoying problem to other students & to teacher. What would you do?
“Kiyoshi” Kiyoshi is a highly competent student, but has long history of antisocial behavior. He is quick to anger, & minor events quickly escalate to major confrontations. He has few friends, & most of his conflicts occur with peers in hallways & cafeteria & on bus. In last 2 months, he has been given 8 days of in school detention & 6 days of out of school suspension. In a recent event, he broke glasses of another student. What would you do?
“Mitch” Mitch displays a number of stereotypic (e.g., light filtering with his fingers, head rolling) & self-injurious behaviors (e.g., face slapping, arm biting), & his communications are limited to a verbal vocabulary of about 25 words. When his usual routines are changed or items are not in their usual places, his rates of stereotypic & self-injurious behavior increase quickly. What would you do?
“Rachel” Rachel dresses in black every day, rarely interacts with teachers or other students, & writes & distributes poems & stories about witchcraft, alien nations, gundams, & other science fiction topics. When approached or confronted by teachers, she pulls hood of her black sweatshirt or coat over her head & walks away. Mystified by Rachel’s behavior, teachers usually shake their heads & let her walk away. Recently, Rachel carefully wrapped a dead squirrel in black cloth & placed it on her desk. Other students became frightened when she began talking to it. What would you do?
Fortunately, we have a science that guides us to… • Assess these situations • Develop behavior intervention plans based on our assessment • Monitor student progress & make enhancements All in ways that can be culturally & contextually appropriate Crone & Horner, 2003
However, context matters…. What factors influence our ability to implement what we know with accuracy, consistency, & durability for students like Rachel, Reiko, Mitch, & Kiyoshi?
“141 Days!” Intermediate/senior high school with 880 students reported over 5,100 office discipline referrals in one academic year. Nearly 2/3 of students have received at least one office discipline referral. Reiko is in this school!
5,100 referrals = 76,500 min @15 min = 1,275 hrs = 159 days @ 8 hrs
“Da place ta be” During 4th period, in-school detention room has so many students that the overflow is sent to the counselor’s office. Most students have been assigned for being in the hallways after the late bell. Kiyoshi is in this school!
“Cliques” During Advisory Class, the “sportsters” sit in the back of the room, & “goths” sit at the front. Most class activities result in out of seat, yelling arguments between the two groups. Mitch is in this classroom!
“Four corners” Three rival gangs are competing for “four corners.” Teachers actively avoid the area. Because of daily conflicts, vice principal has moved her desk to four corners. Rachel is in this school!
“FTD” On 1st day of school, a teacher found “floral” arrangement on his desk. “Welcome to the neighborhood” was written on the card You are in this School!
Questions! • What would behavior support look like if Mitch, Rachel, Kiyoshi, & Reiko were in these classrooms & schools? • Are these environments safe, caring, & effective? Context Matters!
BIG IDEA Successful individual student behavior support is linked to host environments or school climates that are effective, efficient, relevant, durable, & scalable (Zins & Ponti, 1990)
10 Worry“Teaching” by Getting Tough Runyon: “I hate this f____ing school, & you’re a dumbf_____.” Teacher: “That is disrespectful language. I’m sending you to the office so you’ll learn never to say those words again….starting now!”
12 Erroneous assumption that student… • Is inherently “bad” • Will learn more appropriate behavior through increased use of “aversives” • Will be better tomorrow…….
When behaviorreturns….”Get Tough!” • Clamp down & increase monitoring • Re-re-re-review rules • Extend continuum & consistency of consequences • Establish “bottom line” ...Predictable individual response
When behavior doesn’t improve, we “Get Tougher!” • Zero tolerance policies • Increased surveillance • Increased suspension & expulsion • In-service training by expert • Alternative programming …..Predictable systems response!
But….false sense of safety/security! • Fosters environments of control • Triggers & reinforces antisocial behavior • Shifts accountability away from school • Devalues child-adult relationship • Weakens relationship between academic & social behavior programming
Science of behavior has taught us that students…. • Are NOT born with “bad behaviors” • Do NOT learn when presented contingent aversive consequences ……..Do learn better ways of behaving by being taught directly & receiving positive feedback
13 VIOLENCE PREVENTION • Surgeon General’s Report on Youth Violence (2001) • Coordinated Social Emotional & Learning (Greenberg et al., 2003) • Center for Study & Prevention of Violence (2006) • White House Conference on School Violence (2006) • Positive, predictable school-wide climate • High rates of academic & social success • Formal social skills instruction • Positive active supervision & reinforcement • Positive adult role models • Multi-component, multi-year school-family-community effort
Effective Academic Instruction Effective Behavioral Interventions POSITIVE, EFFECTIVE SCHOOL CULTURE (SWPBS) = Continuous & Efficient Data-based Decision Making Systems for Durable & Accurate Implementation
Approach for operationalizing best practice Supporting Social Competence & Academic Achievement OUTCOMES Supporting Decision Making Supporting Staff Behavior DATA SYSTEMS PRACTICES Supporting Student Behavior
Tertiary Prevention: Specialized Individualized Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior CONTINUUM OF SCHOOL-WIDE INSTRUCTIONAL & POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT FEW ~5% Secondary Prevention: Specialized Group Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior ~15% SOME Primary Prevention: School-/Classroom- Wide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings 23 ALL ~80% of Students
Intensive, Individual Interventions • Individual Students • Assessment-based • High Intensity • Intensive, Individual Interventions • Individual Students • Assessment-based • Intense, durable procedures • Targeted Group Interventions • Some students (at-risk) • High efficiency • Rapid response • Targeted Group Interventions • Some students (at-risk) • High efficiency • Rapid response • Universal Interventions • All students • Preventive, proactive • Universal Interventions • All settings, all students • Preventive, proactive Responsiveness to Intervention Academic Systems Behavioral Systems 1-5% 1-5% 5-10% 5-10% 80-90% 80-90% Circa 1996
RTI Continuum of Support for ALL Reading Math Soc skills Science Soc Studies Basketball Dec 7, 2007
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REACT to Problem Behavior WAIT for New Problem Expect, But HOPE for Implementation Select & ADD Practice Hire EXPERT to Train Practice 34 “Train & Hope”
Team GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS • Readiness agreements, prioritization, & investments • 3-4 year implementation commitment • Local capacity for training, coordination, coaching, & evaluation • Systems for implementation integrity Agreements Data-based Action Plan Evaluation Implementation
Team-led Process Non-Teaching Family Behavioral Capacity Priority & Status Representation Specialized Support Administrator Team Community Data-based Decision Making Administrator Student Teaching Communications Start with Team that “Works.”
Working Smarter Are outcomes measurable?
Sample Teaming Matrix Are outcomes measurable?
SWPBS Practices School-wide Classroom • Smallest # • Evidence-based • Biggest, durable effect Family Non-classroom Student