School-wide Positive Behavior Support Rob Horner and George Sugai University of Oregon and University of Connecticut OSEP TA Center on Positive Behavior Support www.pbis.org www.swis.org
Introductions • My background • What problem behaviors are you seeing that (a) are a barrier to academic gains, and/or (b) are a barrier to social development?
Goals: Answer the following • What is School-wide PBS? • How can we tell if SWPBS is a good idea for our school? • Can we do SWPBS given everything else we have to do? • What are the steps? What help will we get?
Basic Messages • The social behavior of students affects the effectiveness of schools as learning environments. • Improving the social behavior of students requires investing in the school-wide social culture as well as in strategies for classroom, and individual student intervention.
School-wide PBS is theConvergence of Three Forces Legal Expectations Science Practice School-wide Positive Behavior Support
What is School-wide Positive Behavior Support? • School-wide PBS is: • A systems approach for establishing the social culture and behavioral supports needed for a school to be an effective learning environment for all students. • Evidence-based features of SW-PBS • Prevention • Define and teach positive social expectations • Acknowledge positive behavior • Arrange consistent consequences for problem behavior • On-going collection and use of data for decision-making • Continuum of intensive, individual intervention supports. • Implementation of the systems that support effective practices
Establishing a Social Culture Common Language MEMBERSHIP Common Experience Common Vision/Values
Tertiary Prevention: Specialized Individualized Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior SCHOOL-WIDE POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT ~5% Secondary Prevention: Specialized Group Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior ~15% Primary Prevention: School-/Classroom- Wide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings ~80% of Students
Social Competence & Academic Achievement Positive Behavior Support OUTCOMES Supporting Student Behavior Supporting Decision Making DATA PRACTICES SYSTEMS Supporting Staff Behavior
School-wide Systems:Create a positive school culture: School environment is predictable 1. common language 2. common vision (understanding of expectations) 3. common experience (everyone knows) School environment is positive regular recognition for positive behavior School environment is safe violent and disruptive behavior is not tolerated School environment is consistent adults use similar expectations.
Why should we be committed to implementation of SW-PBIS? • SW-PBS benefits children • Reduction in problem behavior • Office discipline referrals • Suspensions • Expulsions • Improved effectiveness for intensive interventions • Increased student engagement • Risk and protective factors improve • Students perceive school as a safer, more supportive environment • Improved academic performance • When coupled with effective instruction • Improved family involvement IL 90 summary Illinois ISAT
Why should we be committed to implementation of SW-PBS? • Benefits to faculty and staff: • Improved consistency across faculty • Better collaboration in support of individual students • Improved classroom management • Classroom routines • Strategies for preventing and pre-empting problem behavior • Reduced faculty absenteeism • Increased faculty retention • Improved substitute performance/perception • Increased ratings of faculty “effectiveness” • Staff perceive themselves as more effective due to coherent planning, improved student behavior, effective strategies for addressing problems.
Why should we be committed to implementation of SW-PBS? • Benefits to District/Community • Improved cost effectiveness • 1 ODR = 15 min staff time; 45 min student time • Sustained effects across administrator, faculty, staff, student change. • Avoids cost of continually re-creating systems that draw resources away from effective education. • Administrative benefits of scale • Cost savings for data systems • Effective transitions among faculty when they shift from one school to another. • Effective innovation • Data systems promote innovation. • Focus on research-based practices Kennedy
What do you see in schools using SW-PBS? • Teams meeting regularly to: • Review their data • Determine if PBS practices are being used • Determine if PBS practices are being effective • Identify the smallest changes that are likely to produce the largest effects • But focusing on the use of evidence-based practices
What do you see in schools using SW-PBS? • Clearly defined behavioral expectations that have been defined, posted, taught and acknowledged.
What do you see in schools using SW-PBS? • Students who are able to tell you the expectations of the school. • Students who identify the school as safe, predictable and fair. • Students who identify adults in the school as actively concerned about their success.
Behavioral Expectations • Core values for your school • 3-5 (simply stated) • Positively stated (describe what you want) • Memorable • Student-appropriate language • Basic values… tied to practical behaviors through your teaching matrix
School-wide Expectations • What are the behavioral expectations in your school? • Do students know both the “words” and the “behaviors?”
Teaching Matrix • For each cell in the matrix • What is the one best example of • the “right behavior?” • 2. What is the correct alternative to • the most common behavioral error?
Are Rewards Dangerous? • “…our research team has conducted a series of reviews and analysis of (the reward) literature; our conclusion is that there is no inherent negative property of reward. Our analyses indicate that the argument against the use of rewards is an overgeneralization based on a narrow set of circumstances.” • Judy Cameron, 2002 • Cameron, 2002 • Cameron & Pierce, 1994, 2002 • Cameron, Banko & Pierce, 2001 • “The undermining effect of extrinsic reward on intrinsic motivation remains unproven” • Steven Reiss, 2005 • Akin-Little, K. A., Eckert, T. L., Lovett, B. J., & Little, S. G. (2004). Extrinsic reinforcement in the classroom: Bribery or best practices. School Psychology Review, 33, 344-362 Use of rewards in Education
“What the Worlds Greatest Managers Do Differently” -- Buckingham & Coffman 2002, GallupInterviews with 1 million workers, 80,000 managers, in 400 companies. • Create working environments where employees: • 1. Know what is expected • 2. Have the materials and equipment to do the job correctly • 3. Receive recognition each week for good work. • 4. Have a supervisor who cares, and pays attention • 5. Receive encouragement to contribute and improve • 6. Can identify a person at work who is a “best friend.” • 7. Feel the mission of the organization makes them feel like their jobs are important • 8. See the people around them committed to doing a good job • 9. Feel like they are learning new things (getting better) • 10. Have the opportunity to do their job well.
Acknowledgement System:(How would you acknowledge “showing respect for others”?)
What do you see in schools using SW-PBS? • Team-based systems for Targeted, and Intensive behavior support for children with more significant needs.
What do you see in schools using SW-PBS? • Faculty and staff who are active problem solvers. • They have the right information • They have efficient organizational structures • They have effective outcome measures • They have support for high-fidelity implementation and active innovation.
Measurable Benefits for Children • Positive, supportive social culture • Active engagement in school/learning • Reductions in problem behavior • Increases in academic outcomes • Active participation of families/community SWIS NYC SWIS
Examples Video link FRMS
Main Messages • Invest in prevention • Build a social culture of competence • Focus on different systems for different challenges • Build local capacity through team processes, and adaptation of the practices to fit the local context • Use data for decision-making • Begin with active administrative leadership Examples