School-wide/Program-wide Positive Behavior Support Tim Lewis, Ph.D. University of Missouri Center on Positive Behavioral Intervention & Supports pbis.org
Starting Point…. • Educators cannot “make” students learn or behave • Educators can create environments to increase the likelihood students learn and behave • Environments that increase the likelihood are guided by a core curriculum and implemented with consistency
The Challenge • The “core curriculum” in school is often “punishment” to try and reduce problem behavior in school • However, “punishing” problem behaviors (without a proactive support system) is associated with increases in (a) aggression, (b) vandalism, (c) truancy, and (d) dropping out. (Mayer, 1995, Mayer & Sulzar-Azaroff, 1991, Skiba & Peterson, 1999)
The Good News… Research reviews continue to indicate thateffectiveresponses to significant behavioral challenges in school include: • Social Skills Training • Academic Restructuring • Behavioral Interventions = instructional strategies - “teaching”
School-wide Positive Behavior Support SW-PBS is a broad range of systemic and individualized strategies for achieving important social and learning outcomes while preventing problem behavior OSEP Center on PBIS
Big Ideas • Build Positive Behavior Support Plans that teach pro-social “replacement” behaviors • Create environments to support the use of pro-social behaviors • School-wide • Classroom • Individual student
Essential Features at the School Level • Teams of educators within the school (administrator) • Data-based decision making • Instructional Focus • Teach & Practice • Acknowledge student mastery of social skills • Positive Feedback
Social Competence & Academic Achievement Positive Behavior Support OUTCOMES Supporting Decision Making Supporting Staff Behavior DATA SYSTEMS PRACTICES Supporting Student Behavior
Academic Systems Behavioral Systems • Intensive, Individual Interventions • Individual Students • Assessment-based • High Intensity • Intensive, Individual Interventions • Individual Students • Assessment-based • Intense, durable procedures • Targeted Group Interventions • Some students (at-risk) • High efficiency • Rapid response • Targeted Group Interventions • Some students (at-risk) • High efficiency • Rapid response • Universal Interventions • All students • Preventive, proactive • Universal Interventions • All settings, all students • Preventive, proactive Designing School-Wide Systems for Student Success 1-5% 1-5% 5-10% 5-10% 80-90% 80-90%
Continuum of Supports Math Science Spanish Soc skills English Reading Horses
Universal School-Wide/Program Wide Features • Clearly define expected behaviors (Rules) • All Settings • Classrooms • Procedures for teaching & practicing expected behaviors • Procedures for encouraging expected behaviors • Procedures for discouraging problem behaviors • Procedures for data-based decision making • Family Awareness and Involvement
Social Stories I can sit nicely and look at the teacher. Everyone can go to circle and sit on their seat. I can also listen with my ears and try to do what the teacher says.
Tier II (small group) • Efficient and effective way to identify at-risk students • Screen • Data decision rules • Informal assessment process to match intervention to student need • Small group Social Skill Instruction • Self-management • Academic Support • Part of a continuum – must link to universal school-wide PBS system
Tier III (individualized support) • When small group not sufficient • When problem intense and chronic • Driven by Functional Behavioral Assessment • Connections to Mental Health and Community Agencies • Part of a continuum – must link to universal school-wide PBS system
A Working Definition of “Family Involvement” • Awareness • Involvement • Support Emphasis changes across the continuum, but all three should be considered
Universal Connect Points To Families • Primary Focus = Awareness • Information, Information, Information (2-way) • Educators and parents sharing information across multiple venues • Involvement • Parent team member • Specific activities to partner with families at school • Clear timelines, what is expected, outcomes • Support • Information regarding range of services & supports • Referral Points • Strategies for home use
Tier IIConnect Points To Families • Primary Focus = Involvement • Parent consent/ information meeting • Parent part of planning • Follow-up meetings and outcome sharing • Awareness • Continuum of supports explained • Referral points defined • Support • Partnership to explore school / home strategies • Quick easy “generalization strategies” for home use
Individual/Intensive: Connect Points To Families • Primary Focus = Support • Partner planning – strengths-based focus using functional behavioral assessment • Facilitating interagency programs • Targeted training/supports for families • Awareness • Information (e.g., Special Education, Mental Health, District Services, Community Supports) • Accessible referral point (special education / non-special education) • Teacher education RE impact on family • “Science” of behavior for both educators and family • Involvement • Family advocacy groups on school/district team • Parents of children with disabilities on school/district team
Impact of our SW-PBS Center’s Efforts To Date • In the US over 17,000 schools; 46 state initiatives • In Missouri, over 700 schools, including pre-schools • Head Start • Private pre-schools • Mental Health • Juvenile Justice / Safe Schools • Working with researchers and educators in Canada, Australia, and several countries in Europe pbis.org pbismissouri.org
Becky Beckner, PhD Columbia Public Schools Early Childhood Behavior Consultant Positive Discipline = Great Kids! Preventing Problems with Positive Behavior Supports
Program-wide PBS • MU, and other schools have researched what the PBS approach looks like in early childhood settings, addressing developmental issues. • Columbia Public Schools early childhood programs began implementation in 2001, followed by Head Start across 8 counties in 2002 and various early childhood programs across the state (and nation). • Two national early childhood centers were created: • Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning (http://csefel.vanderbilt.edu/) • Technical Assistance Center on Social Emotional Intervention for Young Children www.challengingbehavior.org)
PW-PBS Practices: How Staff Interact with Children Teaching clearly defined expected behaviors and routines in all settings Modeling and practicing expected behaviors Use of common language by all Acknowledgingexpected behaviors Giving reminders to ensure positive behaviors are displayed Culture and context considered Family awareness and involvement FOUNDATION: Building relationships with children and families
Clearly Defined Expected Behaviors Determine school-wide expectations with rule examples for classrooms and other settings *Be Safe, Be Kind, Be Responsible*
The PBS Teaching Matrix Defines what the expectations “look like” in the common areas of the school building (e.g., hallways, playground, bathrooms…) and in the classroom Gives behavior examples Keeps expectations positive How to use at home: What does it LOOK LIKE to be safe in the car? Kind at church? Responsible in the bathtub?
2. NATURAL CONTEXT 1. SOCIAL SKILL Expectations 3. BEHAVIOR EXAMPLES
Behavioral Errors Often occur because: Children do nothave the skills They do notknowwhen to use the skills They have not beentaughtspecific procedures and routines Skills are not taughtwhere and when they need to be used Or simply, they have learned that inappropriate behavior works quicker and better!
Prevention Strategies for Supporting Young Children • Children are less likely to engage in problem behavior when they know what is expected and how to do it: • Give clear directions in positively stated language. “Please be safe and use walking feet in the house.” • Establish routines that allow children to demonstrate appropriate skills AND that minimize problem behavior • What are the steps of getting ready for bed? • What do the adults do to make this routine go smoothly?
What We Teach What it LOOKS LIKE to follow the behavior examples in different settings on the matrix Routines of your life How to identify and control emotions Conversation skills-facial expressions, personal space, turn taking, body language Friendship and play skills-interacting and cooperating Responding to conflict and stress
Family Routine Guide Shopping Restaurants Going to the Doctor Taking Medicine Taking a Bath Bathroom Time When Parents Can’t Play Getting Dressed and Undressed Brushing Teeth/Hair Meals/Snacks Play Outside Play Clean-up Riding in the Car Transitions!!!
Make Your “Expectations” Clear • Tell your child what TO do instead of what NOT to do • Have age-appropriate expectations (how long should a two-year-old be able to sit at church or at the doctor’s office?)
Using Pictures to Teach Rules Get out your camera Snap a photograph of what you want your child TO DO Post it, model it, practice it, and notice when it’s done and praise it! If your rule is “clean up”…show your child how to do it!
Precorrection Responding to behaviors after the fact does not prevent the behavior from happening again. GOAL: anticipate problems there might be in a setting/situation and correct for them in advance by reminding of expectations. Precorrects prompt children for expected behavior: “We are going to the playground. How will you be safe there?”
Precorrection: BODY CHECK Teach children and practice what to do with their bodies in order to be safe and responsible in different settings.
Encouraging Expected Behavior: Positive Feedback Point out when expectations are met and specific behavior is displayed (specific and descriptive verbal feedback). EVERYONE should focus on the same expectations. “You are being safe when you stay in your carseat.” “That was so responsible-you picked up the blocks!” “Your sister likes it when you kindly share crayons.”
Catch Your Child Being Good! • Give specific, positive attention to your child for the behavior that you want to see, and teach your child what to do! “Wow! You are being so careful keeping all the pieces on the table!”
Ways to Give Children Encouragement (Examples) “Thank you for taking care of your dishes.” “What a good problem solver you are, you were able to fit all the blocks in the tub.” “It’s so much fun to play with you; you are so good at taking turns.” “Thank you for using your inside voice when your sister was sleeping.”
Providing Positive Feedback Based on the concept that most young children want and need adult attention (which is a powerful AND unavoidable reinforcer). Focus on teaching children to get attention through responsible behavior rather than with misbehavior. I WAS CAUGHT “BEEING” SAFE TODAY!
Tips for Encouraging Your Child Get your child’s attention. Keep it simple—avoid combining encouragement with criticism. Encourage with enthusiasm. Double the impact with physical warmth. Use positive comments and encouragement with your child in front of others.
Setting The Stage for Success! • Know what your child’s limits are • Try to anticipate problems-plan ahead • Stay near your child • Support your child in completing tasks
Filling Your Relationship Piggybank! Make it a GOAL to have more positive interactions with your child than negative ones! It isn’t just about responding to expected behavior with positive feedback.