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Positive Behavior Support for At-Risk Students: The Behavior Education Program

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  1. Positive Behavior Support for At-Risk Students:The Behavior Education Program Florida’s Positive Behavior Support Project University of South Florida 2003-2004

  2. Training Overview • Refresher on at-risk populations • Overview of BEP • Example BEP • BEP Foundations • BEP Processes FL PBS Project: Targeted Interventions 2003-2004

  3. Objectives • Identify foundational components of a BEP • Identify processes involved in a BEP • Develop BEP for your school FL PBS Project: Targeted Interventions 2003-2004

  4. Designing Comprehensive Systems CONTINUUM OF POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT (PBS) Adapted from the Center for Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (2002)

  5. Referrals per Student

  6. At Risk: Disruptive Talks out Unprepared Talks back to teacher Uses inappropriate language Tardy Defiant Refuses to do work Difficulty taking turns Refuses to share Out of seat Aggressive Not dangerous or violent May have low academic achievement Serious/Chronic: Danger to self and/or others Destructive What it looks like… • General: • In line with expectations FL PBS Project: Targeted Interventions 2003-2004

  7. At-Risk StudentsIn general… • Poor peer relations • Low academic achievement • Difficulty adjusting to school environment • Doesn’t earn many SW rewards • Chaotic home environment • Low self-esteem FL PBS Project: Targeted Interventions 2003-2004

  8. Instructional time Academic achievement Stress Learning environment Modeling inappropriate behavior Resources Test scores Attendance SW not sufficient Skill deficiencies don’t remediate themselves Why do we need to intervene? FL PBS Project: Targeted Interventions 2003-2004

  9. Catch them before they fall: • Aggression as a progression • Severity, stability, and risk • Substance abuse • School dropout • Poor life outcomes • Intervention before age 9 is more likely to succeed FL PBS Project: Targeted Interventions 2003-2004

  10. Responding to Problem Behavior in Schools:The Behavior Education Program A comprehensive book by Deanne A. Crone, Robert H. Horner, and Leanne S. Hawken. Due to be published in December 2004 Guilford Publishing, Inc. ISBN 1-57320-940-7; Cat. #0940List Price: $25.00 www.guilford.com FL PBS Project: Targeted Interventions 2003-2004

  11. For At-Risk Students • ~15% of students • Multiple referrals • Multiple settings • At-risk for developing more severe/chronic patterns of problem behaviors FL PBS Project: Targeted Interventions 2003-2004

  12. Student Identification Process • FBA • Group Therapy • Parent Training • Wraparound services • Community Support At-Risk 20% 5% School-Wide: 80% of Student Body

  13. Data-Based Decision • The BEP is indicated when… • High percentage of students with multiple referrals (>15%) • Problem behaviors are found in multiple locations throughout school, from multiple staff • Problem behaviors are not dangerous or violent FL PBS Project: Targeted Interventions 2003-2004

  14. Referrals per Student

  15. Referrals by Location

  16. Referrals by Problem Behavior

  17. Responding to Problem Behavior in Schools: The Behavior Education Program (BEP) Crone, Horner & Hawken (2004). Guilford Publications, NY.

  18. Overview of BEP Elements • Daily positive adult contact • Check-in/Check-out system • Daily report card - Increased attention to behavioral goals • For all school settings • Home-School partnership • Collaborative team-based process FL PBS Project: Targeted Interventions 2003-2004

  19. Overview: Positive Adult Contact • Powerful protective factor for at-risk students • First thing in morning, last thing before going home • Encourage, motivate and help support student FL PBS Project: Targeted Interventions 2003-2004

  20. Overview: Check-in/Check-out • Empirically supported strategy for reducing problem behavior • Quick & easy • Before school, before dismissal • Regular setting and format (predictable) • Positive contact • Prompts, reminders, supports FL PBS Project: Targeted Interventions 2003-2004

  21. Overview: Focus on Behavior • Reminders at check-in/check-out • Feedback from teacher after each class • Daily Progress Report • Increased opportunities for reinforcement and learning FL PBS Project: Targeted Interventions 2003-2004

  22. HR 1st 2nd 3rd 4th L 5th 6th BE RESPECTFUL BE RESPONSIBLE BE ON TIME Adapted from Crone, Horner & Hawken (2004) Points Possible: ______ Points Received: ______ % of Points: ______ Goal Achieved? Y N Daily Progress Report Name: __________________________ Date: ____________ Rating Scale:3=Good day2=Mixed day1=Will try harder tomorrow GOALS: Comments: ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Parent Signature(s) and Comments: _______________________________________________

  23. Daily Progress Report Adapted from Crone, Horner & Hawken (2004) Points Possible: ______ Points Received: ______ % of Points: ______ Goal Achieved? Y N Name:Date: Rating Scale: = Good day: 3 points = Mixed day: 2 points =Will try harder tomorrow: 1 point GOALS: Teacher comments: Parent Signature(s) and Comments:

  24. Overview: Behavior Education • Clearly defined expectations/goals • Daily prompts from positive adult • Daily prompts at each class/activity • Daily feedback from teachers and parents • Additional support available on a daily and as-needed basis FL PBS Project: Targeted Interventions 2003-2004

  25. Overview: All School Settings • Daily Progress Report (DPR) • All of student’s teachers/supervisors involved • Need for staff buy-in, training FL PBS Project: Targeted Interventions 2003-2004

  26. Overview: Home-School Partnership • Parents meet with BEP team and student • Parents sign behavior contract • Parents review, comment and sign DPR FL PBS Project: Targeted Interventions 2003-2004

  27. BEP Candidates Making a good student-program match

  28. At-Risk Student Characteristicsand the BEP • Disorganized • Sensitive to change, stress • History of low levels of reinforcement • History of poor relationships • Low self-esteem FL PBS Project: Targeted Interventions 2003-2004

  29. BEP: Who Qualifies • More than a minimum number of referrals • Across several different settings • Not dangerous to self/others • Adult attention is rewarding FL PBS Project: Targeted Interventions 2003-2004

  30. Example Behaviors • Difficulty following directions • Frequent peer conflict • Low-grade aggression (horseplay, rough-housing, etc…) • Disruptive • Talks out • Unprepared • Talks back to teacher • Uses inappropriate language • Tardy • Defiant • Refuses to do work • Difficulty taking turns • Refuses to share • Out of seat FL PBS Project: Targeted Interventions 2003-2004

  31. Do Not Include: • Dangerous/violent students • Students who bring a weapon to school • Students who injure/may injure themselves • Students with a high number of referrals • Students with referrals from only one setting, teacher, or time • Students who find adult attention aversive FL PBS Project: Targeted Interventions 2003-2004

  32. Pick Your Candidate… Nacirema Middle School: 1-20 referrals; 5% receive 12 or more/year; 80% receive 5 or less/year • John • 11 referrals • 8 from classroom, 2 from hall, 1 from bus • Disruption, defiance, tardy, harassment • Richard • 5 referrals • From cafeteria, hall and bus • Disruption, tardy, inappropriate language • George • 17 referrals • From multiple classrooms, cafeteria, hall, and bus • Disruption, defiance, fighting • Caught with box opener

  33. Example of a BEP in Action: Nacirema Middle School

  34. Bob - Nacirema Middle School • 8–8:25: Check-in. Bob arrives at the library with two of his friends and is greeted by the BEP coordinator. Bob gives yesterday’s DPR (which had been signed by Bob’s father) to the coordinator. The coordinator tells Bob he is glad Bob came to Check-in today, and gives him a new DPR. After Bob puts his name and date on the form, the coordinator asks Bob to show him that he has brought the supplies he needs for the day. Bob opens his backpack, and the coordinator sees that Bob forgot to bring paper with him. The coordinator gives Bob a few sheets of looseleaf and reminds him to bring everything he needs with him the next day. The coordinator prompts Bob to have a good day and to meet his DPR goals, and gives him a Tiger Ticket for having a successful check-in. FL PBS Project: Targeted Interventions 2003-2004

  35. Bob – Nacirema Middle School • School day: When Bob arrives at class, he gives his DPR to the teacher, who welcomes him to class and asks him if he had any questions about last night’s homework. During the period, the teacher looks for opportunities to reinforce Bob for appropriate behavior, and monitors his progress on his BEP goals. At the end of class, the teacher gives the DPR back to Bob, and tells him how each score was decided on. FL PBS Project: Targeted Interventions 2003-2004

  36. Bob – Nacirema Middle School • 2-2:10: Check-out. Bob leaves class 5-10 minutes early so he can return to the library for check-out. He gives his DPR to the coordinator, who keeps one copy for the school’s records and returns the DPR to Bob so he can have his parents sign it. If Bob has met his goal for the day, he can take a small snack as a reward. The coordinator congratulates Bob for his appropriate behavior, and prompts him to have a good day again tomorrow. FL PBS Project: Targeted Interventions 2003-2004

  37. BEP for Primary Grades • Developmental considerations • More concrete goals • Reciting goals • Symbols vs. Numbers vs. Text • Rehearsal • Teacher support/prompting • Organizational considerations • Transitions based on activities/time periods • Timing of feedback • Classroom vs. Check-in room/escorts • Check out FL PBS Project: Targeted Interventions 2003-2004

  38. Establishing a BEP at Your School

  39. School Readiness • SW PBS in place • Administrative support • Faculty/staff buy-in • BEP one of top 3 priorities for school year • Stable school characteristics/environment FL PBS Project: Targeted Interventions 2003-2004

  40. Getting Started • Establish BEP team and Coordinator • Identify what problems will be addressed • Academics and Behavior • Ensure adequate staff, resources, time • Establish referral process, data system, and create needed forms • Staff Training • Parent Information • Student Body Information FL PBS Project: Targeted Interventions 2003-2004

  41. First Steps • Establish the BEP team and Coordinator • Identify what problems will be addressed • Ensure adequate resources are available

  42. The BEP Team • Administrator • Persons with knowledge of behavioral issues • Persons with experience dealing with at-risk students • Representative of school, committees • 8-person limit FL PBS Project: Targeted Interventions 2003-2004

  43. The BEP Team • Attend weekly meetings • Offer collaborative assistance in student/staff in-services • Introduce BEP to students and families • Contribute to decisions regarding BEP students • Offer regular feedback on BEP process • Buy rewards • Time for training staff (1-3 hour in-service) • Time for BEP team meetings FL PBS Project: Targeted Interventions 2003-2004

  44. Team Time Commitments

  45. BEP Mission Statement • Develop according to the needs of your own school • Example: “To identify and respond to students in need of additional supports within the school environment, and to ensure their success through individualized progress monitoring and data-based decision making.” FL PBS Project: Targeted Interventions 2003-2004

  46. BEP Coordinator *”SOMEONE THE STUDENTS ENJOY AND TRUST”* • Enthusiastic • Lead check-in and check-out • Enter data daily • Prioritize students for BEP meetings • Process requests for assistance • Create graphs for meetings • Gather extra info for meetings • Lead meetings • Maintain records FL PBS Project: Targeted Interventions 2003-2004

  47. Crone, Horner & Hawken (2004). Responding to Problem Behavior in Schools:The Behavior Education Program. Guilford Publications, NY.

  48. Make sure to appoint and train a backup coordinator FL PBS Project: Targeted Interventions 2003-2004

  49. Teacher Time Commitments

  50. Review – Time RequirementsMain Points • Must review data weekly • Alternative model: Progress Monitoring person, check-in person…team meets briefly each week to check in for problems/changes • One-two people to handle daily check-in activities • Teacher responsibilities will be minimum, depending on number of BEP students in their class FL PBS Project: Targeted Interventions 2003-2004