Understanding Why Children Engage in Challenging Behavior Developing Positive Effective Strategies Positive Behavior Support Amy McCart, Ph.D. Learning Disabilities of Kansas Conference November 7, 2008
Agenda • Understanding Positive Behavior Support • How does behavior work? • Understanding the functions (or reasons) for problem behavior • Developing effective intervention strategies using the Behavior Analysis and Intervention Summary (BAIS) • Parent tools (Keys and Home)
Positive Behavior Support PBS involves comprehensive multi-component support that focuses on: • Preventing problem behavior • Using of research-validated practices • Teaching new skills • Enhancing quality of life • Assessing the reasons for problem behavior and redesigning environments and challenging contexts • Embedding intervention into natural routines • Person-centered support
The ABCs • Behavior – observable response • Antecedents – what happens before the behavior (can function to trigger behavior) • Consequences – what happens after (can reduce or increase the likelihood of behavior through the principles of reinforcement and punishment)
Setting Events Conditions or circumstances that increase the likelihood of problem behavior Setting events “set the stage…”
Setting Events • Can be due to social, environmental or physiological factors • May or may not immediately proceed the behavior • Examples may include: lack of sleep, sickness, medication changes, stressful experiences, cultural issues, history and family experiences
Understanding the ABC’s • Example
Can increase the Likelihood of Behavior Triggers Can decrease the Likelihood of Behavior
Determining Function Why is the Behavior Occurring
Obtain Activities Items Attention Physiological Stimulation Problem behavior occurs to accomplish the following Escape Activities Items Attention Physiological Stimulation Sugai & Horner, 2001
Be (or find) an objective observer Interview others in the child’s life How Do You Determine Function?
Behavior Analysis and Intervention Summary (BAIS) Developing Effective Intervention Strategies
BAIS • Let’s use the BAIS: Behavior Analysis and Intervention Summary to develop an effective multi-component intervention to address the example provided earlier
Applying What You Know With an example from your experience identify the following: • How behavior works? • How to determine the function (or reason) for problem behavior • Develop effective intervention strategies using the Behavior Analysis and Intervention Summary (BAIS)
Elements of EffectiveInterentionStrategies • Layers of Support • Includes choice • Touches on individual, group and class-wide • Includes lots of positive components • Immediate elements of reinforcement • Consistent • Considers context
Changing the Focus of Control • Effective teachers recognize that the only behavior they can directly control is their own • First thing to do when you encounter a student with problem behavior is NOT to focus on changing his/her behavior but focus on changing your own teaching behaviors Utah SIGNAL Project Utah State University
An easier way to address problem behavior systematically Ticket to Success
Tickets to Success • Describe problem behavior • Figure out why it occurs (that is, the reason for (or “function” of) the problem behavior • Choose some positive intervention strategies using the questions on the back as a guide
Intervention Ideas to Consider Strategies Can I change the environment, or routine or schedule to change this behavior? Can I reward or acknowledge a positive behavior instead? Can I teach a new skill to replace this behavior? Can I think of more than one way to address this behavior in a positive way? What can I do to prevent this behavior in the future?
Harmony in The Home Key Settings and Core Behavioral Strategies for the Home Focus Child: _______________________ Date: _________________ Home Setting: ________________________ 1) Sketch out a diagram of how a problematic home setting (room, area, floor of the house, outside area) is set up on the back of this page. What changes can be made to make is less problematic environmentally (increase visual supervision, support active engagement in activities, etc.) 2) Record a typical daily schedule, include transition times as specific activities. 3) Decide what your clearly defined behavioral expectations will be for your home. What do they look like and not look like in this specific environment. 4) Select a motivation system for your home or this specific environment, using a layered positive based motivation system; try not to rely on one system. 5) Establish clear steps to deal with behavioral concerns when necessary. 6) Write down 3 or 4 back up activities that will be available to your child, if a planned activity is not working. Have all needed supplies and materials for these back up activities available. 7) Select specific ways to handle transitions in your home. Specifically, how will your child know it is time to change activities and how will they go about moving from one activity to another? 8) How will you ensure consistency with your child in other environments in your home or at restaurants, in a vehicle, etc.?
Resources • Weaving Intervention into the Fabric of Everyday Life: An approach to family assessment (Bernheimer & Keogh, 1995) • Contextual Fit for Behavioral Support Plans (Koegel, Koegel, & Dunlap, 1996) • Positive Behavior Support with Families (Lucyshyn, Dunlap, & Albin, 2002) • Parenting with Positive Behavior Support: A practical guide to resolving your child’s difficult behavior (Hieneman, Childs & Sergay, 2006) • Developing Cross-Culture Competence (Lynch & Hanson, 2004)
Resources • Center for Evidence Based Practice www.challengingbehavior.org • Online academy PBS module www.onlineacademy.org • OSEP Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports www.pbis.org • Kansas Institute on Positive Behavior Support www.kipbs.org • Don’t forget APBS in March 2009
Amy McCart, Ph.D. University of Kansas PBS Research & Consultation, LLC. email@example.com Thank You For Your Time