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Positive Behavior support

Positive Behavior support

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Positive Behavior support

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  1. Positive Behavior support Jessica Heighway EDUC – K 543 Indiana University Northwest | 2014

  2. “If a child doesn’t know how to read…we teach.”“If a child doesn’t know how to swim…we teach.”“If a child doesn’t know how to multiply…we teach.”“If a child doesn’t know how to drive…we teach.”“If a child doesn’t know how to behave…we……teach?......punish?”Why can’t we finish the last sentence as automatically as we do the others-Tom Herner (NASDE President) Counterpoint

  3. Here is what we know Behavior problems and the lack of discipline is one of the biggest concerns facing public schools today. There is more time being spent on reactive behavioral management than academic instruction. These reactive disciplinary actions result in these students missing academic instruction. Behavior problems increase the “burn out” rate in teachers. 50% of new teachers left within 5 years of teaching. 44% of teachers and 39% of highly qualified teachers left the profession due to student behavior. (Cregor-2008)

  4. Time Lost To Discipline (Barrett and Swindell-2002) (Wisconsin PBIS Network-2014).

  5. What Is Positive Behavior Intervention Supports? (PBIS) • Proactive approach to deal with behavior problems in schools. • The emphasis is placed on the prevention of problem behavior. • Teaches the development of pro-social skills. • Uses data-based problem solving to address behavior concerns. • Educates all students by using school-wide, classroom, and individualized interventions. (Dunlap, Goodman, McEvoy,Paris- 2010)

  6. GOALS OF PBIS (Dunlap, Goodman, McEvoy,Paris- 2010)

  7. Where Is PBIS Being Implemented? • Over 18,000 schools in 49 states are implementing PBIS • Preschools • Elementary Schools • Middle Schools • High Schools • PBIS is implemented in various communities. • Students with severe emotional impairments, developmental disabilities, and juvenile facilities also participate in PBIS. (OSEP Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports-2014)

  8. History And Development Of PBIS • In 1997 the reauthorization of IDEA, a grant was legislated to create a PBIS national center. (OSEP Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports-2014)

  9. Why Is PBIS So Important? • PBIS is a skill building approach that will strengthen social skills for all students. • Educators report there is more time for instruction because of the positive environment and decreased behaviors. • Fewer students rise to the second and third tiers when universal practices are implemented • Students become effective models for each other. • School environment consists of a culture of respect, structure, and safety. • PBIS requires a team approach that includes students, school staff, parents, and the community. (Dunlap, Goodman, McEvoy,Paris- 2010)

  10. Levels of Support (Dunlap, Goodman, McEvoy,Paris- 2010)

  11. Tier 1 interventions Involves all students

  12. Implementing Tier 1 • Establish a commitment and get started • Support from district and administration • Research information from other schools. • Consult with PBIS experts • Provide school-wide training for all staff and students • Self- assessment surveys TIER 1 80-90% of students (Dunlap, Goodman, McEvoy,Paris- 2010)

  13. Implementing Tier 1 Continued… • Create a PBIS Team • Grade level representatives • Special education staff • Specials teachers • Administrators • Parent representatives • Staff with expertise in PBIS, classroom management, and data analysis • Establish data collection system • Office referral form • Referral data is summarized and shared with the staff on a regular basis. • Recognize the progress • Interpret the data • Suggest what the next steps should be based on the data (Dunlap, Goodman, McEvoy,Paris- 2010)

  14. Implementing Tier 1 Continued… 4. Establish and teach positive behavior expectations. • Identify 3-5 core behavioral values • Universal Expectations Matrix • Develop visuals • Plan to teach appropriate behaviors as you would teach academics • Design systems for positive acknowledgement and reinforcement • Rewards systems and celebrations • Positive teacher attention (Dunlap, Goodman, McEvoy,Paris- 2010)

  15. Implementing Tier 1 Continued… • Designing predictable consequence systems for behavior infractions • T-chart • Data-based decision making • Behavioral data updated and reviewed (specific behavior chart and when it happens) • Determine Tier 2 interventions for small group of students. • Set goals for improvement. (Dunlap, Goodman, McEvoy,Paris- 2010)

  16. Universal Expectations Matrix (OSEP Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports-2014)

  17. T-Chart Example (OSEP Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports-2014)

  18. Tier 1 Classroom Examples

  19. Tier 1 School-Wide Examples

  20. Scenario for Tier 1: School-Wide The students at Sunnybrook Elementary are having difficulty at school. They are running and screaming in the hallways, throwing food in the cafeteria, and leaving the water on in the bathroom sinks. There has also been many instances of fighting on the playground. What Tier 1 interventions can Sunnybrook put in place to decrease these issues?

  21. Scenario for Tier 1: Classroom Mrs. Applebottom is becoming very frustrated with her 7th grade class. The students interrupt her while she is trying teach a lesson. They walk around the room, talk to one another, and are constantly leaving the room to use the bathroom. What are some Tier 1 interventions she can put in place for her classroom?

  22. Tier 2 interventions Involves some students

  23. What Are Tier 2 Interventions? • Provides additional support to a smaller percentage of students who do not sufficiently respond to the Tier 1 strategies. • Involves analyzing referral data that identifies: • Locations and time of day behaviors are happening • Classrooms or teachers that may need additional classroom management • Small groups of students who are demonstrating similar behavior problems • Students who could benefit from daily monitoring • Students who need more academic and organizational support • Students who could benefit from different alternatives rather than suspension • Students may be at risk for developing chronic problem behavior TIER 2 5-10% of students (Dunlap, Goodman, McEvoy,Paris- 2010)

  24. Implementing Tier 2 • Create process for identifying Tier 2 students • Create several interventions that address various needs of students • Allocate resources to implement the interventions • Sort all students into the Tier 2 interventions • Collect data on progress of students receiving interventions • Evaluate success and modify the program (Dunlap, Goodman, McEvoy,Paris- 2010)

  25. What Students Qualify for Tier 2 Interventions? How Are Interventions Selected? Should be based on a FBA Analyze data with team members Collaborate with team members • Students who accumulate 3-5 office referrals • Students may be nominated by staff or family members • Disorganized • Needs reinforcement of classroom rules • Fails to complete homework • Students who display difficulty following social norms, routines, and expectations • Students with ADHD • Students on the autism spectrum • Students who lack social skills (Dunlap, Goodman, McEvoy,Paris- 2010)

  26. Example of Tier 2 Interventions • Behavior Contracts Mentoring • Peer Tutoring • Organizational Tools • Reward System • Token boards • Social Stories • Teach Coping Skills/Relaxation • Techniques • Check In Check Out • Teach Social Skills • Teach Conflict Resolution Skills • Alternatives To Suspension • Simple Home/School Behavior Plans • Daily Behavior Forms • Self-Monitoring (PBIS World-2014)

  27. How Do We Know Tier 2 Is Effective?

  28. Scenario for Tier 2 Interventions: Elementary Heidi is a first grader at Tall Oaks Elementary School. She is diagnosed with Asperger Syndrome. Heidi often comes to school disorganized and unprepared. She is above grade level for her age and often gets bored within the classroom. Heidi will often scream and throw tantrums and will also leave the classroom unannounced. Heidi has also been having difficulty on the playground. She has on occasion kicked and pushed other students and even her classroom teacher. What are some Tier 2 interventions we can put in place for Heidi?

  29. Scenario for Tier 2 Interventions: Secondary Cayden is a junior at Hamilton High School. His attendance at school is inconsistent and his grades in his classes are all below average. Cayden has difficulty completing assignments and he usually sleeps during class. His teachers are becoming more frustrated with him because he comes to school tired and has no motivation. Cayden appears to not have very many friends at school and usually keeps to himself. What are some Tier 2 interventions we can put in place for Cayden?

  30. Tier 3 interventions Involves few students

  31. What Are Tier 3 Interventions? • Focuses on the individual needs of the student who exhibit ongoing patterns of problem behavior. • These students also need the foundation and structure from Tier 1 and 2 supports. • Developed by comprehensive and collaborative assessments • Interventions are then developed based on this information • Diminish the problem behavior • Increase the student’s adaptive skills and life opportunities. • These students demonstrate: • Chronic and frequent behavior problems • Dangerous behavior • Highly disruptive • Behavior is impeding their learning • Excluding themselves from education or other social situations TIER 3 1-5% of students (Dunlap, Goodman, McEvoy,Paris- 2010)

  32. Implementing Tier 3 Interventions • Create a process for identifying students in needs of Tier 3 supports. • Create a team to develop an individualized behavior intervention plan. • Conduct a functional behavior assessment • Link functional assessment results to the development of a behavior intervention plan • Allocate resources to implement the behavior plan. • Collect data on student interventions. • Evaluate success and modify the program. (Dunlap, Goodman, McEvoy,Paris- 2010)

  33. Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA) • Identifies the variables that trigger (antecedents) and maintain (reinforce) the problem behavior. • Studies how the student interacts with their environment. • When? • Where? • Why? • Assesses the student’s strengths and interests. • Assesses how skill deficits may contribute to the problem behavior. • Academic skills • Social skills • All information is gathered and hypothesis statements are developed. • Behavior Intervention Plan is then developed. (Dunlap, Goodman, McEvoy, Paris- 2010)

  34. Steps for Implementing a FBA? • Identify goals of intervention: • What is the student doing that is problematic? (Describe in measureable terms) • Describe to what extent the behavior is happening. • What goals do you hope to achieve • Gather relevant information: • Review existing records • Interview teacher, student, parents • Directly observe the behavior • Develop summary statements • When, Where, and with Whom does the behavior most and least occur • What are other conditions that appear to be related to the behavior? • What happens after the behavior? • Develop a BIP and consider: • Adjustments to the environment • Teaching replacement skills • Consequences to promote positive behavior • Crisis response plan (if needed) • Implement and monitor outcomes • Training and resources needed • Responsibility for monitoring implementation • Evaluate outcomes • Regularly schedule follow up meetings (Dunlap, Goodman, McEvoy, Paris- 2010)

  35. What is a Behavior Intervention Plan? (BIP) Who is Involved in the FBA and BIP? The student’s teachers The student’s parents/guardians Student, if appropriate Support Staff Administrators People who know the student well Community mental health, outside therapists, or medical personnel. Staff who have expertise in positive behavioral interventions and supports. • Prevention of problem behaviors • Instruction in replacement behaviors. • Systems of positive reinforcement. • Planned consequences • This decreases the reinforcement of the problem behavior • Emergency interventions • Home/School Collaboration (Dunlap, Goodman, McEvoy, Paris- 2010)

  36. Scenario for Tier 3 Interventions: Chad is a fifth grade student who constantly interrupts the teacher. When the students are working independently and the teacher is going around the room working with individuals, Chad makes animal noises to get the teacher’s attention. Chad does not get work done independently. His teacher has tried token boards and rewards systems, but it does appear to be working. Should Tier 3 interventions be put into place? Why?

  37. Scenario for Tier 3 Interventions: Dylan is a 5 year old student in a self-contained classroom. He has been diagnosed with autism but occasionally displays highly aggressive behaviors. These behaviors include: kicking, hitting, spitting, and throwing classroom objects. His classroom teacher is frustrated because she cannot get him to work. What steps can we take to help Dylan and his classroom teacher?

  38. Research article #1 The Effect of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Supports on Children in Impoverished Rural Community Schools (McCrary, Lechtenberger, Wang-2012)

  39. The Effect of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Supports on Children in Impoverished Rural Community Schools • Purpose: The purpose of the this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Positive Behavior Supports on children in impoverished community schools. • Participants: Four schools from three different districts participated in this study. • 1 Elementary School • 2 Middle Schools • 1 High School • 71%-78% of students came from low-income homes. (McCrary, Lechtenberger, Wang-2012)

  40. The Effect of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Supports on Children in Impoverished Rural Community Schools (McCrary, Lechtenberger, Wang-2012)

  41. The Effect of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Supports on Children in Impoverished Rural Community Schools (McCrary, Lechtenberger, Wang-2012)

  42. The Effect of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Supports on Children in Impoverished Rural Community Schools • Design: The design of this case study is to analyze the students’ behavior before and after Positive Behavior Supports have been put into place. • Variables: • Independent: The intervention being assessed was the implementation of Positive Behavior Supports within the school. • Dependent: A group of faculty and staff from the Education Service Center Region 17 and Texas Tech University observed a full day at each school. During each visit observation data was collected in the following areas: • Hallways • Cafeteria Areas • Stairways • Bathrooms • Data was collected on: • Safety concerns • Behavior problems of individual/groups of students • Misuse of property • Any other major concerns (McCrary, Lechtenberger, Wang-2012)

  43. The Effect of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Supports on Children in Impoverished Rural Community Schools RESULTS Elementary: • Problem: Students coming to class unprepared, tardiness, in-school suspensions. • Solutions: • Rubber tote trays for students to store their books and supplies • Teaching and posting hallway expectations • Campus leadership team • Good behavior ticket system • Class rewards and celebrations (McCrary, Lechtenberger, Wang-2012)

  44. The Effect of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Supports on Children in Impoverished Rural Community Schools • Middle School #1: • Problem: High number of discipline referrals due to tardiness • Solutions: • Student’s schedules posted outside their lockers • Teachers monitor the hallways • Teachers greet students and encourage to walk and talk to class (McCrary, Lechtenberger, Wang-2012)

  45. The Effect of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Supports on Children in Impoverished Rural Community Schools • Middle School #2: • Problem: Disciplinary actions • Solutions: • Principal’s 100 Club • Positive Behavior Modeling • Behavior Expectations posted in common areas • Student awards • Weekly drawings for prizes (McCrary, Lechtenberger, Wang-2012)

  46. The Effect of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Supports on Children in Impoverished Rural Community Schools • High School: • Problem: Increased academic failure rates and discipline referrals • Solutions: • Ticket reward system • Prizes and rewards • PASS Program-organized tutoring and study hall program after school (McCrary, Lechtenberger, Wang-2012)

  47. The Effect of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Supports on Children in Impoverished Rural Community Schools • Reaction/Evaluation: • Good and Interesting Article • Well researched • Appropriate use of design: analyzing pre-post effects • Differentiated interventions among buildings according to their needs • According to the data, strategies appear to be effective • Interested to see progress after 5 years instead of just 1 year (McCrary, Lechtenberger, Wang-2012)

  48. Research article #2 Comparing Individual Behavior Plans from Schools with and without School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: A Preliminary Study (Akin-Little, Medley, Little-2008)

  49. Comparing Individual Behavior Plans from Schools with and without School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: A Preliminary Study • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of student behavior plans from schools who are and who are not implementing Positive Behavior Supports. • Participants: • Nine middle schools from a single district in an urban community located in Southern California. • Each school served between 1,300 and 2,200 students (Akin-Little, Medley, Little-2008)

  50. Comparing Individual Behavior Plans from Schools with and without School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: A Preliminary Study • Design: The design that was introduced in this study was to analyze students behavior before and then after interventions were implemented in these schools. • Variables: • Independent: The specific intervention being assessed in this case study was how Positive Behavior Supports impact the students’ individual behavior plans. • Dependent: The BSP-QE scoring guide was used to evaluate the behavior plans. This rubric measured six concepts: • All behavior (including problem behavior serves a purpose for the student) • Behavior related to the environment • Environment must be changed to change the behavior; replacement behavior taught • New behavior reinforced to maintain over time • Uniform method of how behavior will be addressed if it reoccurs • Frequent communication and staff training (Akin-Little, Medley, Little-2008)