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  2. Academic Systems Behavioral Systems • Intensive, Individual Interventions • Individual Students • Assessment-based • High Intensity • Intensive, Individual Interventions • Individual Students • Assessment-based • Intense, durable procedures • Targeted Group Interventions • Some students (at-risk) • High efficiency • Rapid response • Targeted Group Interventions • Some students (at-risk) • High efficiency • Rapid response • Universal Interventions • All students • Preventive, proactive • Universal Interventions • All settings, all students • Preventive, proactive Designing School-Wide Systems for Student Success… Conceptually consistent with Response to Intervention (RtI) 1-5% 1-5% 5-10% 5-10% 80-90% 80-90%

  3. Behavioral Events: Three-term contingencies A B C/F Antecedent Behavior Consequence/ Function

  4. Decision Points • Tier 1 – Universals (SchoolWide) • Have all students been taught expectations? • Have all students been acknowledged for meeting expectations? • Have we used consistent procedures for disciplinary problems? • Have we conducted monthly analysis of discipline data? • Is there an increase/decrease …? • Is there a minimum of 80%...?

  5. Decision Points • Tier 1 – Universals (Classroom Management) • Structure and Predictability? • Positively stated expectations? • Active Engagement? • Acknowledgement of Appropriate Behavior? • Responses to Inappropriate Behavior?

  6. Implementing Tier II • Assumption: • Schools WILL need a handful of targeted interventions to support student needs • Avoid interventions that work on isolated skills • Organize 3-5 interventions well rather than 7-10 that have overlap in function and outcome • Adult attention • Prompts to stay organized • Prompts to remember specific information • Prompts for self evaluation • Needed skill acquisition (academic, social, organizational)

  7. Who is Appropriate for Intervention? APPROPRIATE Low-level problem behavior (not severe) >.34* (per 100 students) average referrals Behavior occurs across multiple locations Examples talking out minor disruption work completion INAPPROPRIATE Serious or violent behaviors/ infractions Extreme chronic behavior (8-10+ referrals) Require more individualized support FBA-BIP Wrap Around Services

  8. CICO (Check-In/Check-Out) Designed for Students with moderate problem behaviors Most appropriate when problem behaviors are maintained by adult/peer attention Students “check-in” with an adult at the start of each school day Students “check-out” with an adult at the conclusion of each school day Students get feedback from teachers throughout the day

  9. Check-In/Check-Out Students earn rewards once they have earned enough points. Points needed to earn specific rewards are negotiated with the CICO coordinator Students take a CICO Home Report home each night Parents sign the Home Report and return it to school with the student the next morning Parents are asked to provide acknowledgement and praise when the student has a good day Parents are asked not to punish or scold the student after an unsuccessful day

  10. Tier IIIFBA Critical Information What are the student’s Strengths? What are the Problem Behaviors? What are the Antecedentsto the problem behavior? What are the Consequences in response to the problem behavior? What is theFunction of the problem behavior?

  11. Strengths Interests, motivators, etc. Purpose: to determine incentives or reinforcers to use in the plan Sample Questions: What is the student good at doing? What are the student’s interests? What is motivating to the student?

  12. Behavior • An observable, measurable act • of an individual • Purpose: • To clarify specific behaviors for improvement • To provide for baseline data collection • Sample Questions: • What does the student do that is a problem? • What does the behavior look like? • Note: Select one behavior to focus on

  13. Antecedents - Fast Triggers Events immediately preceding the problem behavior such as: • time of day • curriculum/instructional factors • environmental factors • Purpose: To target interventions specific for what immediately precipitates the behavior • Sample Questions: • What sets the behavior off? • What is going on when the student does these behaviors?

  14. Antecedents - Slow Triggers • Broader issues that contribute to the occurrence of the behavior such as: • Medical Conditions • Psychological Conditions • Medication Side Effects • Physical Deprivation • Skill Deficits • Purpose: To target specific interventions for broad issues effecting student behavior • Sample Questions: • Could the behavior be related to any medical conditions or physical discomfort? • Could the behavior be related to skill deficits?

  15. Consequence Factors Any event that follow a behavior • Purpose: To determine if what we are currently using is effective or in need of modification • Sample Questions: • What do you do when the behavior occurs? • What happens to the task at hand when the student engages in the behavior?

  16. a consequence that results in maintaining OR increasing the future rate of the behavior it follows. Reinforcement: a consequence that results in decreasing the future rate of the behavior it follows. Punishment:

  17. Function The purpose the behavior serves for the student • To get something or to avoid something • Attention • Activities • Objects • Stimulus • Purpose: To specific interventions to help the student meet his/her needs more appropriately • Sample Questions: • What do you think the student gets by behaving this way? • What do you think the student avoids by behaving this way?

  18. Hypotheses Statement The team’s summary of FBA data used to develop the Behavior Plan Format: The hypotheses describes the significant antecedents - the problem behavior (its form) - and its function.

  19. Hypothesis Statement(Example): When Toni works with others in interactive situations, especially with less capable peers She makes socially inappropriate comments To avoid social interaction.

  20. High Confidence In Hypothesis? Yes • Write the Positive Behavior Support Plan • No • Continue Assessment Process • (Extensive data collection)

  21. High Confidence in The Hypothesis? • Have you determined a target behavior needing intensive intervention? • Is there a specific definition of the problem behavior? • Is there specific data regarding antecedents to the problem behavior? • Is there specific data regarding actual consequences of the problem behavior? • Is the hypothesized function of the behavior supported by your data?

  22. Extensive Data Collection: • Informant Tools • Checklists • Rating Scales • Interviews • Observation Tools • ABC Recording Form • Event Recording Form • Record Review Data Collection Plan

  23. FBA Data Summary/PBSP Development • Specific Hypothesis • Baseline of problem behavior • Global Hypothesis • Student Strengths • Replacement Behavior (Baseline, Goal(s), & Progress Monitoring) • Specially Designed Instruction

  24. Summarizing Strengths • Teams should determine which strengths identified in the FBA can be utilized in the plan to motivate and encourage the student to use replacement behaviors. • If unknown, the team must determine how to get this data • The team should also consider function of the behavior as it relates to motivation.

  25. Baseline of the Problem Behavior What is the baseline measure of the behavior of concern? • Frequency • Duration • Other? If unknown, determine how you will get the data. Data Collection Plan

  26. New Skills/Replacement Behavior What skill will replace the problem behavior? • Equivalent skill to serve the same function as the problem (equivalence training) • General skill to prevent the problem behavior (academic, social, communication, problem solving, decision-making) • Self-regulation skill to prevent the problem behavior (conflict resolution, self-advocacy, anger management, relaxation techniques)

  27. Baseline of the New Skill Why collect baseline data on the new skill? • To determine the student’s ability to perform the new behavior • To guide decisions in setting performance criteria Data Collection Plan

  28. Summarizing Setting Events and Slow Triggers • The team must determine which of the events or slow triggers should be addressed.

  29. The Goal Determine a goal for performance of the replacement behavior: • Behavior should be observable and measurable The goal should includes: • Evaluation Method • E.g., frequency recordings, attendance records Remember, visually representing the data in a chart or graph makes analysis easier.

  30. Strategies Interventions that will help the student achieve the new behavior. –Specially Designed Instruction (SDI) for IEP Students: • What methods? • Under what conditions? • How is it delivered?

  31. Interventions that modify the events that precede a behavior in order to make the problem behavior less likely to occur. Examples Teacher prompt Cue card Verbal class reminders Rule posted Antecedent Strategies

  32. Antecedent Strategies • Consider each antecedent identified as “triggering” the behavior of concern • Develop strategies to alter the situation or environment which will: • Prevent or reduce the problem behaviors from occurring. • Increase desired behavior. • Examples: chunk assignment, teach writing strategies, move seat, provide a cue card

  33. Replacement Behavior StrategiesInstructional approaches designed to teach the desired behaviors identified for a student. Considering the replacement behavior • Skill Instruction - Describe specific strategies to teach the skill/replacement behavior. • Describe instructional approaches to teach the student how and when to perform the skill or behavior. • Examples: teach to ask for help, teach to share materials, role play alternatives to verbal conflict

  34. When considering the replacement behavior, the function of the behavior of concern, and student strengths, develop strategies to: Reinforce and strengthen acquisition and performance of replacement behaviors Remember, the strongest reinforcer for the replacement behavior is one that achieves the same result (function) as the problem behavior. Examples: allowed to work with peer, earn points for reward, helps in library, reads to younger students Reinforcement Consequence Strategies

  35. When considering the behavior of concern, its function and the effectiveness of previous consequences used, Develop strategies to implement if the student performs the behavior of concern that will: Weaken or reduce the problem behavior. Make it less likely to achieve the function Deescalate and redirect the problem behavior. Examples: prompt to use appropriate behavior, offer cool down time, remove a privilege Note: Reduction consequences are necessary but do not predominate as they do in traditional behavior plans. Reduction Consequence Strategies

  36. Strategies/Plan – Setting Events and Slow Triggers • What strategies will address the setting events and slow triggers identified by the team? • Examples: • Providing academic support, e.g., homework club, tutoring • Recommending resources to parents, e.g., YMCA, Big Brother Program, Girl Scouts, Planned Parenthood

  37. Plan Implementation Plan development is not enough; the plan must be implemented. The following steps are important to plan implementation: Distribute and Explain the plan Implement direct instruction of replacement skill Collect, Summarize and Graph data Meet to Review Effectiveness of the plan

  38. The Review Meeting Was the plan implemented as designed? Was the data collected? Was the data graphically represented? Is there a reduction in the problem behavior? Is there an increase in replacement behavior? What are next steps? When is the next review meeting?

  39. Review • All behavior occurs in a context • Assessment of problem behavior and the contexts in which it occurs leads to better intervention plans • Team-based assessment and decision- making is better than going at it alone • Behavior intervention plans that are systematically developed, implemented, and monitored are more effective