School-wide Positive Behavior Support for Parents Laura A. Riffel, Ph.D.
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What does a PBIS school look like? • 20-80% reduction in Office Discipline Referrals • 3-5 Behavioral Expectations are posted, taught, modeled, practiced and rewarded. • Administrator is an active participant on the PBIS team. • Continuum of behavior support is available to all students. • Children are caught being good.
What does a PBIS school feel like? • Students report feeling safer • Teacher’s report higher morale and less turnover rate. • Administrative staff report having more time to deal with students on a personal level and not on a behavioral level. • Parents report feeling more positive about the school. • People look forward to Mondays, and Tuesdays, and….
What does a PBIS school sound like? • Students receive at least 4 positive comments for every correction. • Students greet adults who enter the building. • Hallways are quieter. • Lunchrooms are less noisy. • Teachers are talking about academics instead of behaviors.
Don’t be confused! PBIS = PBS = EBS = SWD = SWPBS
Why do I always get the worst class?
Why do I always get the best class?
Alternative School You’re Out! jail Admin gangs
Cranklin Covey Time Management Class Offered Daily Learn how to turn 24 hours into 48 hours
Improve literacy, math, geography, science, etc. Make schools safe, caring, & focused on teaching & learning Improve student character & citizenship Eliminate bullying Prevent drug use Least Restrictive Environment Prepare for postsecondary education Provide a free & appropriate education for all Prepare viable workforce Affect rates of high risk, antisocial behavior Leave no child behind Etc…. Competing, Inter-related National Goals
CONTINUUM OF SCHOOL-WIDE EFFECTIVE BEHAVIORAL SUPPORT ~5% ~15% Primary Prevention: School-/Classroom- Wide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings ~80% of Students
CONTINUUM OF SCHOOL-WIDE POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT ~5% Secondary Prevention: Specialized Group Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior ~15% Primary Prevention: School-/Classroom- Wide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings ~80% of Students
Tertiary Prevention: Individualized Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior CONTINUUM OF SCHOOL-WIDE EFFECTIVE BEHAVIORAL SUPPORT ~5% Secondary Prevention: Specialized Group Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior ~15% Primary Prevention: School-/Classroom- Wide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings ~80% of Students
Spinning pyramid developed by Laura Riffel- based on the work of Drs. Sugai & Horner
What about all the things we already do well? • The really nice thing about SW-PBS is that all those things you do well fit right into the whole system • This is a framework and puts a name on all those things and helps the entire staff work smarter not harder.
School-Wide Systems Non Classroom Settings Classroom Systems Individual Student Support Systems
Three years after leaving school, 70% of antisocial youth have been arrested (Walker, Colvin, & Ramsey, 1995) 82% of crimes are committed by people who have dropped out of school (APA Commission on Youth Violence, 1993) What happens if we do not intervene?
Clamp down on rule violators. Review rules & sanctions Extend continuum of aversive consequences Improve consistency of use of punishments Establish “bottom line” Notify and confer with parents (Lombardi et al., 1990) What are our “common” responses?
Situations areaversiveto us so we select interventions that: Produceimmediate relieffrom aversive Modifyphysical environment Assignresponsibilityfor change to student &/or others Reactive responses are predictable….
Zero tolerance policies Security guards, student uniforms, metal detectors, video cameras Suspension/expulsion Exclusionary options (e.g., alternative programs) Typical reactive responses
Fosters environments of control Occasions & reinforces antisocial behavior Shifts accountability away from school Devalues child-adult relationship Weakens relationship between academic & social behavior programming Research does not support effectiveness But….false sense of safety/security!
Reviews of over 600 studies on how to reduce school discipline problems indicate that the LEAST effective responses to school violence are: Talking Therapies Psychotherapy Punishment associated with INCREASED aggression, vandalism, truancy, tardiness, & dropouts (Elliott, Hamburg & Williams, 1998; Gottfredson, 1996; Lipsey, 1991, 1992; Mayer, 1995; Mayer & Sulzer-Azeroff, 1990; Tolan & Guerra, 1994) What doesn’t work
What Gives Bob? I’ve been collecting the data and you’ve been in the shower for three days man. Help ME! Help ME! Bob is stuck in the vicious loop of shampoo bottle directions: Lather, Rinse , Repeat. Lather, Rinse, Repeat.
Lined Up I.S.S
“What them kids need….(sic)” 23 states still have no ban on corporal punishment… US Dept of Education: Office of Civil Rights
State Rank vs. Corporal Punishment Top ten for paddling Not outlawed States unnamed to protect the innocent
What does work • Same research reviews indicate that the MOST effective response to school violence is a comprehensive approach that includes: • social skills training • academic restructuring • behavioral interventions
Challenge: How do schools achieve capacity to… • Respondeffectively, efficiently, & relevantlyto range of problem behaviors observed in schools • Engage inteam-based problem solving • Adopt, fit, &sustain research-based behavioral practices • Give priority tounified agenda of prevention
Major Ideas for Effective PBIS • 1. Invest in Prevention • Teach, Model, Practice, Monitor and Reward before resorting to punishment and exclusion. • Focus first on the social culture of the school • 2. Work Smarter • Combine rather than add initiatives • Work smarter
3. Create durable “Systems of Support” • Select different systems based on the nature of the problem • 4. Prepare an implementation plan to “fit” the unique characteristics of your school. • Self-assessment • Different paths -- common outcomes • 5. Gather and use information for on-going decision-making
Social Competence & Academic Achievement Supporting Decision Making SYSTEMS DATA OUTCOMES Supporting Student Behavior Supporting Staff Behavior PRACTICES
School-Wide Systems 1. Commonpurpose& approach to discipline 2. Clear set ofpositive expectations & behaviors 3. Procedures forteachingexpected behavior 4. Continuum of procedures forencouragingexpected behavior 5. Continuum of procedures fordiscouraging inappropriate behavior 6. Procedures for on-goingmonitoring& evaluation
For all students, across all settings Guidelines: Keep to 5 or fewer State positively Use common & few words Why? Consistent communications Consistent language School-wide Behavior Expectations
Miss Mutner Liked to Go Over a Few of her rules... No talking No running No sneezing No betting No looking out the window No dorky hairstyles No coughing No laughing No fighting No swearing No sleeping No being a dork No making fun of teacher No flipping of fingers No drugs No weapons No bringing animals to school No looking at the clock No looking out the window No stupid remarks No coming in late No coming in early No humming No gum chewing No gum popping No sneering No spitting No farting No whistling No rolling your eyes No clicking of teeth No moving of feet under desk No fainting No sickness No going to the bathroom off schedule No crying No snot sucking No talking No running No sneezing No betting No looking out the window No dorky hairstyles No coughing No laughing No fighting No swearing No sleeping No being a dork No making fun of teacher No flipping of fingers No drugs No weapons No bringing animals to school No looking at the clock No looking out the window No stupid remarks
3 R’s for Centreville Middle School Be Respectful. Be Responsible. Be Resourceful. School-wide Behavior Expectations Example:
Be obedient. No fighting. No drugs or weapons on the property. Act responsibly. School-wide Behavior ExpectationsNonexample:
PAWS Be Prompt. Accept responsibility. Work Hard. Show respect. School-wide Behavior Expectations Example:
Litmus Test • Would you write them up if they did the opposite? • Is it something they are capable of exhibiting in observable terms? (Does it show an action?) • Can you visualize what it looks like done well?
Fern Ridge Middle School’s “High Five” Be respectful. Be responsible. Be there and ready. Keep hands and feet to yourself. Follow adult directions the first time. School-wide Behavior Expectations Example:
3-5 BEHAVIORAL EXPECTATIONS RESPECT *SELF *OTHERS *PROPERTY
3 Rs Respect Yourself Respect Others Respect Property