School-wide Positive Behavior Support Renee Bradley, Ph.D. U.S. Department of Education Office of Special Education Programs
Goals • Present an approach to behavior support in schools that weds Educational, Behavioral and Mental Health practices. • Provide a brief overview of how this approach is being implemented • Provide a brief summary of implementation outcomes.
School-widePositive Behavior Support • Socially Important Outcomes • Academic gains • Social competence • Safety • Research-validated Practices • Systems that support these practices • Active use of data for decision-making
School-wide PBS • School-wide PBS consists of a broad range of systemic and individualized strategies for achieving important social and learning outcomes while preventing problem behavior.
SW-Positive Behavior Support Social Competence, Academic Achievement, and Safety OUTCOMES Supporting Decision Making Information Supporting Staff Behavior SYSTEMS PRACTICES Supporting Student Behavior
Tertiary Prevention: Specialized Individualized Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior CONTINUUM OF SCHOOL-WIDE POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT ~5% Secondary Prevention: Specialized Group Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior ~15% Primary Prevention: School-/Classroom- Wide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings ~80% of Students
Practices Define expectations Teach expectations Monitor expected behavior Acknowledge expected behavior Correctbehavioral errors (continuum of consequences) Use information for decision-making Systems Admin Leadership Team-based implementation Defined commitment Allocation of FTE Budgeted support Development of decision-driven information system Formal policies Practices and Systems for School-wide Behavior Support
Areas of Direct Compatibility Prevention Assessment-driven individual intervention Comprehensive support Areas to Develop Implementing systems as well as practices. Implementing at a policy-relevant scale Efficiency Use of information (data) for on-going decision-making Linking Mental Health and Behavior Support Efforts
Linking Mental Health and Behavior Support Efforts • Prevention • Invest in all students before problems develop. • What are the critical features of schools that prevent, and limit the impact of, problem behavior on academic and social outcomes?
Linking Mental Health and Behavior Support Efforts • Assessment-driven support • Behavioral, Medical, Social • Comprehensive Support • Community • Family • Medical/Bio-medical Interventions • Behavioral • Social/Counseling
4% (5) 9% (6) 87% (10)
08% 05% 10% 14% 78% 85% Without PBIS N=38 With PBIS N=31
Partial Full Partial Full Middle 15 (no) 7 (yes) Elementary 38 (no) 31 (yes)
Is Implementation of School-wide PBS related to improved academic achievement? • If there are changes in school-wide behavior support practices, are there improvements in state achievement test scores?
Pre Post Pre Post
Mental Health Outcomes • Does School-wide PBS fit within a comprehensive mental health model of prevention and intervention? • Changes in “risk factors” • Improvement in anti-social behavior, crime, alcohol and drug use. • Changes in “protective factors”
Risk and Protective Factor Comparison t = -2.17 (37) p < .036 t = 2.31 (37) p < .026
Impact of Office Discipline Referral Reduction • Elementary Schools • 76 schools with ODR information • 29,851 students • If all w/o full PBIS (@.73), 39,469 referrals • If all w/ PBIS (@.399), 21,466 referrals ________ Savings 18,003 referrals PBIS data State of Illinois
Elementary School Administrative & Instructional Savings (76 schools)? • If an ODR consumes an average of 15 min of administrative time, • 18,003 referrals = 270,045 min saved • 4,500 hours saved • 5628 hr days saved • If an ODR consumes an average of 45 minutes of student time, • 18,003 referrals = 810,135 min saved • 13,502 hrs saved • 2,2506-hr days saved PBIS data State of Illinois
Summary of Research Results • Investing in SW-PBS results in: • Change in school discipline systems • Team Checklist, SET, EBS Survey (experimental) • Reduction in problem behavior • SWIS ODR data, suspensions, expulsions (almost experimental) • Improved academic performance • Standardized scores (descriptive) • Savings in staff and student time(descriptive) • Improved effectiveness of individual interventions • Illinois wraparound analysis. (descriptive) • Improved perception of school safety, mental health • Risk factors and protective factors (descriptive)
Areas for future collaboration • Systems to sustain effective practices • Implementing systems with practices • Implementation at policy-relevant scale • Implementation of innovation at scale involves different approaches than initial demonstrations • Efficiency • Cost analysis • Time • Use of information (data) for on-going decision-making • Swis.org