Positive Behavior Interventions & Supports:Addressing the Behavior of All Students July 20-22, 2010 SD PBIS Trainers: Ruth Fodness – firstname.lastname@example.org Kari Oyen – email@example.com Pat Hubert – firstname.lastname@example.org State of South Dakota Special Education Programs
What is RtI? • 1) Multi-tiered • 2) Problem solving approach • 3) Evidence-based instruction/intervention • 4) Increasing levels of intensity • 5) Decisions based on data • 6) Progress monitoring • Florida’s PS/RtI Project, February 2008
Framework • We organize our resources • Multi-Tier model • Kids get help early • Actions based on outcomes (data!), not procedures • We do stuff that’s likely to work • Evidence-Based interventions • We make sure they’re successful • Progress monitoring • Problem-Solving process • Increasing levels of intensity
Rationale for RtI • RtI is about arranging effective environments, not “fixing” students • The goal for school staff is to arrange environments so that additional supports are built into the way of life at a school • The goal for students is to work towards self-management, adaptive global functioning
Tier 3: Intensive, Individual • Interventions • Individual Students • Assessment-based • High Intensity • Of longer duration • Tier 2: Supplemental • Interventions • Some students (at-risk) • High efficiency • Rapid response For academics or behavior, RtI principles & characteristics are the same at each tier of support (Misc. Section p.1) • Tier 3 • Direct observations • Progress monitoring data/response to intervention • Implementation fidelity • Tier 2 • Progress monitoring data/response to intervention • Implementation fidelity • Sped referrals • Tier 1 • Progress monitoring data/response to intervention • Implementation fidelity • ODRs, teacher nominations, attendance, walkthroughs • School-wide screening • Tier 1: Core Curriculum/ • Universal Interventions • All settings, all students • Preventive, proactive
Tiers of PBIS • Tier 1 – (Universal) Procedures and processes intended for all students, staff, in specific settings and across campus • Tier 1 & 2 – (Classroom) Processes and procedures that reflect school-wide expectations for student behavior coupled with pre-planned strategies applied within classrooms • Tier 2 – (Supplemental) Processes and procedures designed to address behavioral issues of groups of students with similar behavior problems or behaviors that seem to occur for the same reasons (i.e. attention seeking, escape) • Tier 3 – (Intensive) Processes and procedures reflect school-wide expectations for student behavior coupled with team-based strategies to address problematic behaviors of individual students
Positive Behavior Support… • Aims to build effective environments in which positive behavior is more effective than problem behavior • Is a collaborative, assessment-based approach to developing effective interventions for problem behavior • Emphasizes the use of preventative, teaching, and reinforcement-based strategies to achieve meaningful and durable behavior and lifestyle outcomes
Responding toBehavior: Traditionally • Reactive/Consequence Strategies • Office referral, detention, suspensions, etc. • Used to try to teach the “right way” • May actually reinforce the behavior of concern • Individual counseling and therapy • Restrictive and segregated settings • Implement packaged programs
Traditional Discipline vs PBIS • Positive Behavior Interventions & Supports: • Goal is to stop undesirable behavior by: • Replacing with a new behavior or skill • Altering environments • Teaching appropriate skills • Rewarding appropriate behavior • Traditional Discipline: • Goal is to stop undesirable behavior through the use of punishment • Focuses on the student’s problem behavior
“If a child doesn’t know how to read,we teach.” “If a child doesn’t know how to swim,we teach.” “If a child doesn’t know how to multiply,we teach.” “If a child doesn’t know how to drive,we teach.” “If a child doesn’t know how to behave,we……teach?…punish?” “Why can’t we finish the last sentence as automatically as we do the others?” (Herner, 1998)
Why Tier 1 PBIS? • Over 9000 schools across the country are implementing PBIS because: • It is aligned with RtI • It can be adapted to fit your particular school • It can coexist with most other school-wide programs (reading first, social skills instruction, character ed, etc.) • It is consistent with research-based principles of behavior
Federal & State Support • Intervention of choice in IDEA 2004 • Supports NCLB • Positive Behavior for Effective Schools Act* • RtI:http://www.fldoe.org/Schools/florida-reponse-to-intervention.asp • Universal (Tier 1) intervention • Evidence-based • Higher levels of PBIS includes Tiers 2 & 3 • Data-based, structured problem-solving process
Critical Elements of School-Wide PBIS as Measured by the Benchmarks of Quality (BoQ) • PBIS Team, Administrative Support • Faculty Commitment, Participation • Effective Discipline • Data Entry & Analysis • Expectations & Rules • Reward/Recognition Program • Lesson Plans for Teaching Behavior • Implementation Planning • Crisis Planning • Evaluation • Classroom PBS Systems (Kincaid, Childs & George, 2005)
Using the BoQ Results • Reference throughout training • Problem Solving process • Problem ID statements • Problem Analysis • Action planning/implementation after training
Introduction to the Problem-Solving Process Using the 4-Step Process to Guide Implementation
Problem Solving Steps Step 1: Problem Identification What’s the problem? Step 4: Response to Intervention Step 2: Problem Analysis Why is it occurring? Is it working? Step 3: Intervention Design What are we going to do about it?
Problem-Solving / Response to Intervention • Prior to making changes within the school environment, it is important to know what needs to be changed • Information about what is going on has to be accurate and useful for identifying problems • Analyze problems so that interventions can be effective and efficient • Decisions made with accurate dataare more likely to be: • Implemented • Effective
Step 1: Identify the Problem • Step 1 is critical to the process • Problems to be solved vs. “Issues” to address • Review existing information • Ask: Is it most, or is it some?
Defining the Problem • Specific, observable, measurable: • 3rd grade students were responsible for 40% of our ODRs last month, and most of these took place during their 90-minute reading block, for disruption. • Sixty percent of our ODRs listed the dean as the referring teacher.
Did we define it? • Students are not being respectful. • ODRs are increasing this month. • Most of our ODRs are taking place in an unknown location. • Students are late to class after lunch.
Step 2: Problem Analysis • Develop hypotheses and assessment questions • Make educated guesses as to WHY the problem is happening • Examine environmental factors, not just within child factors • Hypothesis Prediction statements • Confirm problem ID statement (if necessary) • Select possible data collection methods • Direct observation, reports, graphs, teacher/team nominations, etc.
Step 3: Develop & Implement the Plan • Brainstorm intervention strategies • Should directly link to your prediction statement (and goals). • Building up and maintaining your Tier 1 system should be part of your interventions • Develop a specific plan for implementation • Identify roles, responsibilities, timelines • Remember to include fidelity measures
Step 4: Evaluate the Plan • Look at the data you selected to measure your progress towards the goal. • Ask yourself… • Did we meet the goal? • Do we need to develop a new plan? • Were our problem ID statement and analysis correct? • Or, develop a plan to maintain or fade out the intervention if it was successful
Evaluating progress on Tier 1 • Use the Action Plan to evaluate progress towards full implementation • Modify based on data, faculty feedback, as necessary • Office Discipline Referrals, surveys, other data • Classroom tracking forms • Observations • Other products (attendance, Sped referrals, achievement, etc…)
Using the Action Plan • 4 step process for every critical element • After each training section identify: • Step 1: What you think the problem is? --OR-- • Which Elements are missing? • Step 2: Why do you think it is occurring? • Step 3: Brainstorm interventions (what needs to be done, by whom, start date/end date) • Step 4: How are you going to know if the intervention worked?
Group Action Plan • Turn to your Action Plan (Tab 4) and complete the cover page (page 1)of your action planning guide: • Identify team meeting time/location • Begin completing team roster • Contact information • Roles to be determined later
Teaming ***Complete Benchmarks of Quality *** Items #1-4
What did that activity mean? • Allows you to: • Look at old issues from a NEW perspective • Explore the validity of “first impressions” • Stimulate creativity • Think outside-the-box • Help identify natural roles and responsibilities
Rationale for a Team Process • Research indicates that higher functioning teams have higher SWPBIS implementation scores (on the BoQ) (Cohen, 2005) • Schools need to sustain long-term change • Avoid one person effort • Checks and balances • Informed decisions • Consider Core Team vs. Peripheral Team
School PBIS Team Tasks • Develop, implement and evaluate the School-Wide PBS Action Plan • Monitor behavior data, develop interventions • Evaluate progress • Maintain communication with staff and coach • Report outcomes to Coach/Facilitator & District Coordinator • Hold regular team meetings (at least monthly) • May need to meet more frequently in the beginning • Typically 2+ hours month
Where Does Your PBIS Team Fit? • Investigate current programs and initiatives in place • RtI Team, Leadership Team, Student Assistance Team, etc… • Is there overlap? Are some staff members over-burdened? • Realign committees to more effectively address concerns • See the Working Smarter, Not Harder resource in the misc. section (page 2)
Monthly Meetings • Team should meet at least once a month to: • Analyze existing data • Problem-solve solutions to critical issues • Develop interventions based on data • Outline actions for the development, maintenance or modification of the school’s Tier 1 plan • Continue to develop the SW plan (parent participation, community buy-in, Tiers 2 &3, etc…) • Determine staff, student training needs • Meetings generally last 1-2 hours
Identify Team Member Roles(See Misc. section page 3 for complete descriptions) Team Members • Behavior “Expert” • Administrator • Communications • PBS Coach • Snack Master • Team Leader • Recorder • Timekeeper • Data Specialist
Coaches’ Roles & Responsibilities (See Misc. section page 4 for complete descriptions) • Is the main contact person for the PBIS team(s) • District Coordinator • Ensures fidelity of the School-Wide plan • Facilitates team throughout the process (ensures critical elements are in place) • Responsible for State PBIS Evaluations (2x/year) • Attends trainings/meetings with their PBIS team(s) • Receives additional training “Coaches” training • Is an active and involved team member
Administration’s Roles & Responsibilities • Actively participates • If a principal is not committed to the change process, it is unwise to move forward in the process • Actively communicates their commitment • Reminds staff of the significant impact and ultimate success • Familiar with school’s current data and reporting system • Ensures behavior is written into the SIP • Administrator identifies how to free staff time for PBIS activities • Ensuring meeting dates and times are recognized in the master schedule
Meeting Checklist • Agenda is distributed in advance • Items have specific time limits • Meeting starts & ends on time – no exceptions • Team leader moves team through the agenda • Team leader keeps team on-topic • EVERY team member contributes to discussion • EVERY team member volunteers for action plan items • Team addresses conflict constructively • Team rules by obtaining consensus • New Action Plan items generated & added to existing plan **See Miscellaneous Section (pages 6-8) for additional resources
Developing Expectations & Rules ***Complete Benchmarks of Quality*** Items # 20 - 24
School-Wide Expectations • Definition: • A list of broad, positively stated behaviors that are desired of all faculty and students • These expectations should be in line with the school’s mission statement and should be taught to all faculty, students, and families
When Identifying Expectations • Consider existing data summaries: • Discipline • Academic • Identify common goals: • Mission Statement • Other School-Based Programs • Identify characteristics of an ideal student • Can be helpful with faculty buy-in
Identify Characteristicsof an Ideal Student • Identifying the characteristics of an ideal student is a beneficial process for: • Teams that are having difficulty reaching consensus • Teams that are having difficulty building consensus among the faculty • Facilitating consensus with parent groups • Facilitating student consensus
Activity 1:Characteristics of an Ideal Student(Page 1 in Activities Packet) • As a team, compile a list of preferred student characteristics • Include specific examples of what each characteristic looks like
Guidelines forIdentifying Expectations • Identify behaviors expected of allstudents and staff in allsettings • Select 3 to 5 behaviors • State expectations in positive terms • Select expectations that are general enough to be applicable in multiple settings, but specific enough to be of assistance in generating rules for targeted settings
Which Guidelines Were Not Followed in These Examples? • Don’t run • Raise your hand and wait to be recognized before speaking • Be good • No talking • Stay in your seat • Act like ladies and gentlemen
Grover Middle School Expectations • Top Occurring Behaviors: • Disruption, Disrespect, Safety Violations • Did not make AYP • Low SES population • Expectations: • Be RESPECTFUL • Be PREPARED • Be SAFE • Be an ACTIVE LEARNER