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Positive Behavior Disorders and Supports

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  1. Positive Behavior Disorders and Supports Tim Lewis, Ph.D. University of Missouri Center on Positive Behavioral Intervention & Supports pbis.org

  2. The Key Behavior is functionally related to the Teaching Environment

  3. For The Record.. • Strong advocate for the current special education process • Procedural safeguards /Parent & child rights • Individualized plans • Multi-disciplinary approach • Majority of students in special education spend most of their day in general education environments

  4. Challenges in Current Special Education Process • “Wait Fail” evaluation process using a medical model (underlying pathology) • Difficult task of keeping students “on-track” with peers while attempting to catch up due to disability • At times an inefficient parallel system, curriculum, service delivery to general education • Role of special educator becoming blurred, but without clear systems and guidelines

  5. Challenges in Current Special Education Process • Special education often only serves one or two aspects of the child without connections to the whole child’s education • Special education reform will rely as much on changes in general education teacher and administrator pre-and in-service professional development as within our own field

  6. So What do We do Instead Evidence/Research-Based Practices

  7. Research-Based Practices • Academic • “Effective instruction” • Antecedent / setting modifications • Peer tutoring • Direct Instruction • Self-management targeting academic related skills • Opportunities to Respond

  8. Research-Based Practices • Behavior • Environmental modifications and supports • Contingent positive performance based feedback • Self Management • Social Skill Instruction (with maintenance and generalization strategies)

  9. Research-Based Practices • Related Supports* • Comprehensive case management / wrap around • Family supports/ parent training *limited empirical support

  10. Systems Systems Putting Research-Based Practices In Place Systems Prevention, Early Intervention and Individualized Student Supports through Positive Behavior Support

  11. School-wide Positive Behavior Support

  12. Starting Point…. • Educators cannot “make” students learn or behave • Educators can create environments to increase the likelihood students learn and behave • Environments that increase the likelihood are guided by a core curriculum and implemented with consistency and fidelity

  13. The Challenge • The “core curriculum” is often “punishment” to try and reduce problem behavior in school • However, “punishing” problem behaviors (without a proactive support system) is associated with increases in (a) aggression, (b) vandalism, (c) truancy, and (d) dropping out. (Mayer, 1995, Mayer & Sulzar-Azaroff, 1991, Skiba & Peterson, 1999)

  14. The Good News… Research reviews continue to indicate that effective responses to significant behavioral challenges in school include: • Social Skills Training • Academic Restructuring • Behavioral Interventions = instructional strategies - “teaching”

  15. School-wide Positive Behavior Support SW-PBS is a broad range of systemic and individualized strategies for achieving important social and learning outcomes while preventing problem behavior OSEP Center on PBIS

  16. Big Ideas • Build Positive Behavior Support Plans that teach pro-social “replacement” behaviors • Create environments to support the use of pro-social behaviors • School-wide • Classroom • Individual student

  17. Essential Features at the School Level • Teams of educators within the school (administrator) • Data-based decision making • Instructional Focus • Teach & Practice • Acknowledge student mastery of social skills • Positive Feedback

  18. Social Competence & Academic Achievement Positive Behavior Support OUTCOMES Supporting Decision Making Supporting Staff Behavior DATA SYSTEMS PRACTICES Supporting Student Behavior

  19. Academic Systems Behavioral Systems • Intensive, Individual Interventions • Individual Students • Assessment-based • High Intensity • Intensive, Individual Interventions • Individual Students • Assessment-based • Intense, durable procedures • Targeted Group Interventions • Some students (at-risk) • High efficiency • Rapid response • Targeted Group Interventions • Some students (at-risk) • High efficiency • Rapid response • Universal Interventions • All students • Preventive, proactive • Universal Interventions • All settings, all students • Preventive, proactive Designing School-Wide Systems for Student Success 1-5% 1-5% 5-10% 5-10% 80-90% 80-90%

  20. Continuum of Supports Math Science Spanish Reading Soc skills Soc Studies Basketball

  21. Universal Strategies: School-Wide Essential Features • Statement of purpose • Clearly define expected behaviors (Rules) • Procedures for teaching & practicing expected behaviors • Procedures for encouraging expected behaviors • Procedures for discouraging problem behaviors • Procedures for record-keeping and decision making (swis.org) • Family Awareness and Involvement

  22. Benton Elementary School

  23. RAH – at Adams City High School(Respect – Achievement – Honor)

  24. Tier II Interventions • Social-Behavioral Concerns • Social skills • Self-management • Academic Concerns • Peer Tutors • Check in • Homework club • Emotional Concerns • Adult mentors Linked to School-wide

  25. Tier III • When small group not sufficient • When problem intense and chronic • Driven by Functional Behavioral Assessment Linked to school-wide system

  26. Tier II/III Support Process • Step 1 – Insure Universals, including Classroom, in place • Step 2 – Student Identification Process • Decision Rules • Referral • Screen • Step 3 – Classroom Problem Solving • Classroom supports (function-based) • Progress monitor • Step 4 - Tier II/III supports • Non-responders to grade level supports • Match function of student behavior to intervention • Progress monitor • Step 5 - Evaluate Process

  27. 2 Minutes • With your neighbor, share if your school/district is implementing SW-PBS and any “lessons learned”

  28. The Connect Point Across the Continuum Classroom Management & Instruction

  29. Basic Steps • Focus on what you want students to do “instead” (replacement behaviors) • Look for patterns of behavior that suggest “functional relationships” • Teach replacement behavior and provide multiple opportunities to practice • Deliver high rates of positivefeedback/same similar outcome as problem behavior when students display replacement behavior

  30. Classroom Essentials* • Classroom expectations & rules defined and taught • Procedures & routines defined and taught • Continuum of strategies to acknowledge appropriate behavior in place and used with high frequency (4:1) • Continuum of strategies to respond to inappropriate behavior in place and used per established school-wide procedure • Students are actively supervised • Students are given multiple opportunities to respond (OTR) • Activity sequence promotes optimal instruction time and student engaged time • Instruction is differentiated based on student need

  31. Rules & Expectations • All classrooms adopt school-wide rules (Respect, Responsible, Safe) • Create specific examples for your classroom related to each • Teach & Practice w/ feedback all year long

  32. Positive Feedback • 4 to 1? • Age, developmentally, contextually appropriate • Emphasis is on skill mastery • Genuine and sincere

  33. Routines • Make smooth, rapid transitions between activities throughout the class period or school day • Teach/practice transition behaviors • Establish predictable schedules - illustrate with icons, time, etc. • Schedule non-instruction time • administration time • personal time

  34. Routines Clear set-up and instructions • Student directed activities • Whole group activities • Independent activities

  35. Routines • Transitions a) Clear expectations for student behavior b) Clear expectations for staff behavior c) Avoid interfering activities d) Smooth set up and implementation e) Consistent routines f) Acknowledgment of student mastery

  36. Routines • Student directed activities • Small group • Teach group roles & responsibilities • Group leader - insures all have say/turn • Material manager - gets materials & distributes • Group recorder - writes up outcome

  37. Routines Small group • Teach group processes {"problem solving"} a)Define the task b) Brainstorm ideas c) Choose an idea d) Determine what is required to implement the idea e) Implement the idea f) Evaluate the outcome

  38. Routines • Independent work • What materials/areas? • Minimal movement in classroom

  39. Increasing Opportunities to Respond • Encourages everyone to become involved in learning. • Increases rates of responses of all learners. • Increases attainment of material presented. • Allows reluctant learners a secured environment to practice. • Decreases inappropriate or off task behavior.

  40. Whole Group Oral Response • Choral responding • Strategy for reviewing or memorizing information • Students repeat information in unison when teacher prompts

  41. Whole Group Written Response • Written responses should be short (not more than one item) • A verbal signal to indicate completion should be given (e.g. put your pencils down and look up when you are finished) • Materials to use could include: Paper, whiteboards, iPads

  42. Small Groups / Partners • Used to give everyone a chance to: • Express thoughts. • Answer a question. • Verbally participate when there could be a variety of answers. • Answers can be shared with other groups or whole group. • Answers can be written on smartboard by the teacher and presented to group.

  43. Challenge: How to Insure All Staff Are Using Effective Practices

  44. Systems Teach Brief in-service, single topic focus Practice (performance feedback) Peer coaching Principal “walk throughs”

  45. Effective Classroom Practice :Procedures & Routines MO SW-PBS Center for PBS College of Education University of Missouri

  46. A Classroom Example… Stichter, J. P., Lewis, T. J., Johnson, N., & Trussell, R. (2004). Toward a structural assessment: Analyzing the merits of an assessment tool for a student with E/BD. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 30, 25-40.

  47. Study Basics • Subject: • Seven years old • Identified with EBD and ADHD • Setting • General education 2nd grade classroom with 19 other students • One licensed teacher and one student teacher • Concern • Student exhibits high rates of off-task • Student shouts out answers and questions and comments at high rates and often inappropriate

  48. “Function of Behavior” • Descriptive (interviews and teacher reported ABC/ Scatterplot data) • Function identified as Attention • Significant antecedents: multiple step direction and group settings • Very High rates of both problem behaviors reported/ inconsistency in accuracy of data collection