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Positive “Behavior Disorders” & Supports

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  1. Positive “Behavior Disorders” & Supports

    George Sugai OSEP Center on PBIS Center for Behavioral Education & Research University of Connecticut Sep 22 2011 www.pbis.orgwww.scalingup.orgwww.cber.org
  2. PURPOSE Examination of relationship between BD & PBIS w/ consideration of RtI, school reform, bullying, culture, & implementation science Keynote overview: All Follow-up: Administrators, coordinators, coaches, trainers, evaluators Coaching: Administrators, coordinators, coaches, trainers, evaluators
  3. “Notes to Self”
  4. BD & PBIS Shaping
  5. “Abbreviated” SWPBS History
  6. Special Education & BD
  7. Sugai, G., & Horner, R. (1994). Including students with severe behavior problems in general education settings: Assumptions, challenges, and solutions. In J. Marr, G. Sugai, & G. Tindal (Eds.). The OR conference monograph (Vol. 6) (pp. 102-120). Eugene, OR: University of Oregon.
  8. Walker, H. M., Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., Bullis, M., Sprague, J. R., Bricker, D., & Kaufman, M. J. (1996). Integrated approaches to preventing antisocial behavior patterns among school-age children and youth. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 4, 193-256.
  9. “Early Triangle”(p. 201)Walker, Knitzer, Reid, et al., CDC
  10. Surgeon General’s Report on Youth Violence (2001) Coordinated Social Emotional & Learning (Greenberg et al., 2003) Center for Study & Prevention of Violence (2006) White House Conference on School Violence (2006) PREVENTION SCIENCE LITERATURE
  11. “Big Ideas” from Early Years
  12. DEFINE Simply ADJUST for Efficiency MONITOR & ACKNOWLEDGE Continuously MODEL PRACTICE In Setting 57 Teaching Academics & Behaviors
  13. SWPBS Logic! Successful individual student behavior support is linked to host environments or school climates that are effective, efficient, relevant, durable, scalable, & logical for all students (Zins & Ponti, 1990)
  14. Redesign of teaching environments…not students
  15. Behaviorism SWPBS Theoretical Foundations ABA PBS SWPBS aka PBIS
  16. 17 SWPBS Areas School-wide Classroom Family Non-classroom Student w/ BD
  17. SWPBS (aka PBIS/RtI) is Framework
  18. Integrated Elements Supporting Social Competence & Academic Achievement OUTCOMES 15 Supporting Decision Making Supporting Staff Behavior DATA SYSTEMS PRACTICES Supporting Student Behavior
  19. Tertiary Prevention: Specialized Individualized Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior CONTINUUM OF SCHOOL-WIDE INSTRUCTIONAL & POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT FEW ~5% Secondary Prevention: Specialized Group Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior ~15% SOME Primary Prevention: School-/Classroom- Wide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings 23 ALL ~80% of Students
  20. 23 Continuum of Support for ALL Few Some All Dec 7, 2007
  21. Continuum of Support “Molcom” Anger man. Prob Sol. Ind. play Adult rel. Self-assess Attend. Coop play Peer interac Label behavior…not people Dec 7, 2007
  22. RtI, BD, PBIS
  23. RtI Sugai, Horner, Fixsen, & Blase, 2010
  24. Tertiary Prevention: Specialized Individualized Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior CONTINUUM OF SCHOOL-WIDE INSTRUCTIONAL & POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT FEW ~5% Secondary Prevention: Specialized Group Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior ~15% SOME Primary Prevention: School-/Classroom- Wide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings 23 ALL ~80% of Students
  25. Intensive, Individual Interventions Individual Students Assessment-based High Intensity Intensive, Individual Interventions Individual Students Assessment-based Intense, durable procedures Targeted Group Interventions Some students (at-risk) High efficiency Rapid response Targeted Group Interventions Some students (at-risk) High efficiency Rapid response Universal Interventions All students Preventive, proactive Universal Interventions All settings, all students Preventive, proactive Responsiveness to Intervention Academic Systems Behavioral Systems 1-5% 1-5% 5-10% 5-10% 80-90% 80-90% Circa 1996
  26. Responsiveness to Intervention
  27. ESTABLISHING CONTINUUM of SWPBS TERTIARY PREVENTION Function-based support Wraparound Person-centered planning TERTIARY PREVENTION ~5% ~15% SECONDARY PREVENTION Check in/out Targeted social skills instruction Peer-based supports Social skills club SECONDARY PREVENTION PRIMARY PREVENTION Teach SW expectations Proactive SW discipline Positive reinforcement Effective instruction Parent engagement PRIMARY PREVENTION ~80% of Students
  28. School Reform, BD, PBIS, & RtI
  29. Continuum of Support for ALL “District: Literacy” Trek E.S. Bianchi M.S. Jamis E.S. Masi H.S. Serrota E.S. Look M.S. Look M.S. Davidson M.S. Specials Science Align supports Dec 7, 2007
  30. Student Behavior Teacher Practice CONTEXT or SETTING Continua of Responsiveness & Support District Operations School Reform
  31. Implementation of Evidence-based Practices & Systems
  32. Maximum Student Benefits Fixsen & Blase, 2009
  33. Start w/ What Works Focus on Fidelity Detrich, Keyworth, & States (2007). J. Evid.-based Prac. in Sch.
  34. Team GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS: “Getting Started” Agreements Data-based Action Plan Evaluation Implementation
  35. SWPBS Implementation Blueprint www.pbis.org
  36. Where are you in implementation process?Adapted from Fixsen & Blase, 2005
  37. Preventing Bullying Behavior Sugai, Horner, & Algozzine, 2011
  38. Bullying Program Component Review Purpose Maggin, O’Keeffe, & Sugai, in prep
  39. Preliminary Conclusions
  40. Doesn’t Work Works Label student Exclude student Blame family Punish student Assign restitution Ask for apology Teach targeted social skills Reward social skills Teach all Individualize for non-responsive behavior Invest in positive school-wide culture
  41. Victim attention Bystander attention Self-delivered praise Tangibles access
  42. PREVENTION De-emphasis on adding consequence for problem behavior
  43. Target Initiator Context or Setting Continuum of Behavior Fluency Staff Bystander
  44. www.pbis.org “Stop, Walk, Talk”
  45. Reconceptualizing Culture
  46. Early Conclusion… Nothing is inherently biased or culturally irrelevant about practices & systems PBIS implementation. However, we definitely can improve kid outcomes by making those practices & systems more reflective of norms, expectations, & learning histories of kids, family & community members, & school staff.
  47. Behavioral Perspective on Culture
  48. PBIS, SpEd & Kids w/ BD Sugai-Fernandez CA Sansei JA “Damn behaviorist”
  49. Function-based Support for Tiers 2/3
  50. Behavior Support Elements *Response class *Routine analysis *Hypothesis statement *Alternative behaviors *Competing behavior analysis *Contextual fit *Strengths, preferences, & lifestyle outcomes *Evidence-based interventions Problem Behavior Functional Assessment *Implementation support *Data plan Team-based Behavior competence Intervention & Support Plan *Continuous improvement *Sustainability plan Fidelity of Implementation Impact on Behavior & Lifestyle O’Neill et al., 1990, 1996
  51. Desired Alternative Typical Consequence Summary Statement Setting Events Triggering Antecedents Problem Behavior Maintaining Consequences Acceptable Alternative O’Neill et al., 1990, 1996
  52. Some Data
  53. RCT & Group Design PBIS Studies Reduced major disciplinary infractions Improvements in academic achievement Enhanced perception of organizational health & safety Improved school climate Reductions in teacher reported bullying behavior Bradshaw, C.P., Koth, C.W., Thornton, L.A., & Leaf, P.J. (2009). Altering school climate through school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports: Findings from a group-randomized effectiveness trial. Prevention Science, 10(2), 100-115 Bradshaw, C.P., Koth, C.W., Bevans, K.B., Ialongo, N., & Leaf, P.J. (2008). The impact of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) on the organizational health of elementary schools. School Psychology Quarterly, 23(4), 462-473. Bradshaw, C. P., Mitchell, M. M., & Leaf, P. J. (2010). Examining the effects of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on student outcomes: Results from a randomized controlled effectiveness trial in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 12, 133-148. Bradshaw, C.P., Reinke, W. M., Brown, L. D., Bevans, K.B., & Leaf, P.J. (2008). Implementation of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) in elementary schools: Observations from a randomized trial. Education & Treatment of Children, 31, 1-26. Horner, R., Sugai, G., Smolkowski, K., Eber, L., Nakasato, J., Todd, A., & Esperanza, J., (2009). A randomized, wait-list controlled effectiveness trial assessing school-wide positive behavior support in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11, 133-145. Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., & Anderson, C. M. (2010). Examining the evidence base for school-wide positive behavior support. Focus on Exceptionality, 42(8), 1-14. Waasdorp, T. E., Bradshaw, C. P., & Leaf, P. J. (in press). The impact of school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports on bullying and peer victimization: A randomized controlled effectiveness trial. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions.
  54. Academic-Behavior Connection “Viewed as outcomes, achievement and behavior are related; viewed as causes of each other, achievement and behavior are unrelated. In this context, teaching behavior as relentlessly as we teach reading or other academic content is the ultimate act of prevention, promise, and power underlying PBS and other preventive interventions in America’s schools.” Algozzine, Wang, & Violette (2011), p. 16. Algozzine, B., Wang, C., & Violette, A. S. (2011). Reexamining the relationship between academic achievement and social behavior. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions, 13, 3-16. Burke, M. D., Hagan-Burke, S., & Sugai, G. (2003). The efficacy of function-based interventions for students with learning disabilities who exhibit escape-maintained problem behavior: Preliminary results from a single case study. Learning Disabilities Quarterly, 26, 15-25. McIntosh, K., Chard, D. J., Boland, J. B., & Horner, R. H. (2006). Demonstration of combined efforts in school-wide academic and behavioral systems and incidence of reading and behavior challenges in early elementary grades. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions, 8, 146-154. McIntosh, K., Horner, R. H., Chard, D. J., Dickey, C. R., and Braun, D. H. (2008). Reading skills and function of problem behavior in typical school settings. Journal of Special Education, 42, 131-147. Nelson, J. R., Johnson, A., & Marchand-Martella, N. (1996). Effects of direct instruction, cooperative learning, and independent learning practices on the classroom behavior of students with behavioral disorders: A comparative analysis. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 4, 53-62. Wang, C., & Algozzine, B. (2011). Rethinking the relationship between reading and behavior in early elementary school. Journal of Educational Research, 104, 100-109.
  55. 23 Behavior Continuum Academic Continuum RTI Integrated Continuum Mar 10 2010