Rowan-Salisbury Schools RtI Foundations Training August 2010 School-Wide Positive Behavior Intervention Support: Overview Amy Roberts & Erin Banks, School Psychologists August 2010
Ain’t Misbehavin’. . . • Misbehavior is one of most serious problems confronting educators today • Annual Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup Poll • Polls public’s attitude toward education • Asked the question, “What do you think are the BIGGEST problems with which the public schools of your community must deal?”
The Results. . . • 1970 Poll Results • #1 = Lack of Discipline • #2 = Lack of Finances • #3 = Difficulty Getting Good Teachers • #4 = Use of Drugs, Dope • #5 = Lack of Proper Facilities • Survey conducted each year • How has “lack of discipline” been ranked during that span?
2006 Results • 1. Lack of Financial Support • 2. Overcrowded Schools • 3. Lack of Discipline • 4. Use of drugs • 5. Pupils’ Lack of Interest • 6. Fighting/Violence/Gangs
Problems Associated with Misbehavior • Teacher Burnout • Inability to control behavior problems in classroom (QUIT) • Fired - #1 reason teachers get fired • Yelling, nagging, scolding, tantrums • Punishment (corporal or otherwise) • Academics of entire classroom suffers
The Criticism Trap Dr. Dave Herr, James Madison University
What Happens to These Kids? • 3 years after leaving school: • 70% of antisocial youth have been arrested (Walker, Colvin, & Ramsey, 1995) • 82% of crimes are committed by people who have dropped out of school (APA Commission on Youth Violence, 1993) • The stability of aggression over a decade is very high; about the same as IQ (Walker et al, 1995)
Children with Emotional & Behavioral Disorders • 2% of these children are identified EC • Lower grades; fail more courses/exams • Held back more often • Lower graduation rates • Arrested more often • 40% - 1 year after school • 60% - within 5 years after school • More frequently placed in restrictive educational environments • More time in Juvenile Justice System
Early Intervention • If antisocial behavior is not changed by The end of GRADE3, It should be treated as a chronic condition much like diabetes. • It cannot be cured but managed with appropriate supports and continuing intervention (Walker, Colvin, & Ramsey 1995)
Protecting Kids From Harm • Resnick, Bearman, Blum, Bauman, Harrison, Jones, et al; Journal of the American Medical Association, September 1997 • Studied 90,000 adolescents (grades 7-12) who filled out questionnaires • Goal: To determine which variables were associated with LOW RATES of the teenager’s: • Emotional distress, use of drugs/alcohol, teen pregnancy, engaging in violence, early first sexual experience • Findings: • TWO variables were found to predict low rates of these problems………..
Connectedness! • Connectedness with Family • Connectedness with School • (Can counterbalance disconnectedness with family)
Connectedness • Connectedness is Lowest in: • Racially-integrated schools • Schools that expel students for relatively minor infarctions • Connectedness in Highest in: • Positive classroom management • High rates of participation and extracurricular activities • Tolerant discipline policies • Small school size Promoting Connectedness: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (C.A. McNeely, J.M. Nonnemaker, R.W. Blum, Journal of School Health, April 2002, Vol 72, No 4).
The Good School Project • Kappa Delta Pi (Frymier, Cornbleth, Donmov) in late 1980s to: Find the 100 best academic schools in the U.S. • 70 elementary, 15 middle, 21 secondary • 2 affluent, 26 middle class, 66 working class, 12 poor communities • Smallest district: 350 student to 100,000 students They found that discipline was NOT a problem in these schools!!!
Why Not? • Main Reason: TEAMWORK • No single recipe for success • Principles collaborate to create a positive school environment • Three Other Reasons: • Reinforcement of positive behaviors • Teachers are main disciplinarians • Rules (only 5-7)
School-Wide PBIS Build a continuum of supports that begins with the whole school and extends to intensive, wraparound support for individual students and their families.
What is School-wide Positive Behavior Intervention Support? • School-wide PBIS is: • A systems approach for establishing the social culture and behavioral supports needed for a school to be an effective learning environment for all students. • Evidence-based features of SW-PBIS • Prevention • Define and teach positive social expectations • Acknowledge positive behavior • Arrange consistent consequences for problem behavior • On-going collection and use of data for decision-making • Continuum of intensive, individual intervention supports. • Implementation of the systems that support effective practices
Rob Horner University of Oregon (www.pbis.org) School-wide PBIS now Implemented in 10,892 Schools Throughout U.S.
Tertiary Prevention: Specialized Individualized Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior SCHOOL-WIDE POSITIVE INTERVENTION BEHAVIOR SUPPORT ~5% Secondary Prevention: Specialized Group Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior ~15% Primary Prevention: School-/Classroom- Wide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings ~80% of Students 27
Integrated Elements Supporting Social Competence & Academic Achievement OUTCOMES 15 Supporting Decision Making Supporting Staff Behavior DATA SYSTEMS PRACTICES Supporting Student Behavior
23 RTI Continuum of Support for ALL Few Some All Dec 7, 2007
Academic Systems Behavioral Systems • Intensive, Individual Interventions • Individual Students • Assessment-based • High Intensity • Of longer duration • Targeted Group Interventions • Some students (at-risk) • High efficiency • Rapid response • Targeted Group Interventions • Some students (at-risk) • High efficiency • Rapid response • Universal Interventions • All students • Preventive, proactive • Universal Interventions • All settings, all students • Preventive, proactive 80-90% 80-90% Multi-tier Model • Intensive, Individual Interventions • Individual Students • Assessment-based • Intense, durable procedures 1-5% 1-5% 5-10% 5-10%
SWPBIS Features • Total Staff Commitment • Custodians, librarians, bus drivers, etc. • Clearly defined & communicated rules and expectations • Consequences clearly defined • School-Wide Reinforcement for those who abide by rules • Instructional component for teaching self-control and social skills • Support plan to address chronic behavior problems
SWPBIS & RtI Features • Universal Screening • Data-Based decision making and problem-solving • Continuous Progress Monitoring • Student Performance • Continuance of Evidence-Based Interventions • Implementation Fidelity
SOURCE: Sugai, G., (August 1, 2007). School-wide positive behavior support and responsiveness-to-intervention. Keynote presentation to and paper for the Southern Maryland PBIS Summer Regional Conference. Waldorf, MD.
Universal Classroom Interventions • Keep in mind: • Most problem behaviors occur in the classroom • Effective social and academic instruction is essential for ALLclassrooms • Classrooms are “personal”
Importance of Effective Instruction(Sanders, 1999) The single biggest factor affecting academic growth of any population of youngsters is the: effectiveness of the classroom. The answer to why children learn well or not isn't race, it isn't poverty, it isn't even per-pupil expenditure at the elementary level. The classroom's effect on academic growth dwarfs and nearly renders trivial all these other factors that people have historically worried about.
Creating Environments • Focus on socially important behaviors • Inviting atmosphere / Friendly & Helpful • Connections / relationships between: • Staff-staff • Staff-students • Students- adults Is your school a place where you would want your own child to attend?
Tier I Core SWPBIS • Prevention • The MOST important!!! • Physical Presence/Teacher Movement • Modeling • Making Connections • Rules • Verbal & Nonverbal Praise
Physical Presence • Teacher Movement (Fifer, Academic Therapy, 1986) • Teachers spent between 75-100% of each class period in FRONT of the classroom • Main Finding: Discipline problems are directly proportional to the distance between the teacher and the student! • Two other findings: • The more the teacher moved around the classroom, the less behavior problems. • The more the teacher moved around the classroom, the more substantive interactions of students (worthwhile).
Spatiality • Proxemics • Amount of space between teacher and students • What happens if you take away personal space from someone who is aggressive/angry? • Elevation • Teacher is usually above student, looking down, which represents dominance • What does Super Nanny say about elevation when disciplining children?
Self-Reflection • List the most important social behaviors you desire of the persons with whom you work (I.e. students, teachers, persons you supervise, etc.) • Rate them from 1 (most important) to 5
Walk Your Talk • Look at the list of behaviors you desire of others • Rate yourself on how well you walk your talk • Are you satisfied? • Not satisfied? Change your expectations for others or change your own behaviors.
Modeling • Albert Bandura • Bobo Doll Experiment • We learn to be who we are through incidental learning - by unconsciously imitating models • We are models to our students everyday, both consciously and unconsciously
Making Connections • Students need to feel connected • How? • Give students ATTENTION and APPROVAL • When? • Unconditionally - “just because” • In Seconds - it only takes seconds a day • To Whom? • Everyone! • “Bad” kids need more!
Rules Synthesis of Research on Classroom Management (E.T. Emmer and C.M. Evertson, Educational Leadership, 38, 1982) • Over 300 elementary/middle schools over 5 year period • Purpose: identify teacher practices associated with low rates of discipline problems and high rates of engagement • Findings: • 1. Effective teachers had 5-6 positively stated rules on the FIRST day of school that were posted in the room • 2. Effective teachers spent time teaching the rules to the kids during the first few weeks
Rules • Maximum Number of Rules: 5-7 • How Stated: Positively • Maximum Number of Words Per Rule: 7 • Where should they be posted? • Seen by kids • Seen by teacher • Why? To remind and reinforce behaviors • How Big are Letters? At least 3 inches or more
Rules, Ignore, Praise Study • 1968 - Classic Study by Madsen, Becker & Thomas • When teachers listed 5-6 rules, reminded students of rules, and reviewed rules • Behavior got a little better • When teachers continued going over rules, but ignored minor disruptive behavior. . . . • Behavior got worse • When teachers continued with the rules, ignored the minor behaviors, and directed praise to the students who were being good (at a ratio of 4 positives to each corrective). . • Behavior improved significantly
What Did We Learn? Catch Them Being Good!!!!
Reinforcers A Few Rules to Remember: • There are NO universal reinforcers that always work for everyone • One reinforcer may work well for one student, but not another • Reinforcers must occur IMMEDIATELY following the behavior you want to increase • Reinforcment must be contingent to be effective • NOT effective: “I’ll give you this if you promise to do that.” • Jump-start new behaviors by reinforcing often, then backing away • Bad kids and Bad days need more reinforcment! Dr. Dave Herr, James Madison University
What is the most important thing that a teacher can do to make his/her praise effective? Make The Praise CREDIBLE!!! (credibility comes from body language) *93% of the meaning of any interaction is NONVERBAL*
Credibility • Spatiality • Proxemics: Near, But NOT too near • Elevation: At eye-level • Positioning: Nonthreatening, Interested • Kinesics • Eye Contact • Facial Expressions • ParaLanguage • Tone (avoid inflections of impatience) • Volume (appropriate for distance) • Cadence (even rhythm)
SWPBIS Classroom Management “Ten Best” • Minimize crowding and distraction • Maximize structure & predictability • State, teach, review & reinforce positively stated expectations • Provide more acknowledgement for appropriate than inappropriate behavior (4:1 ratio) • Maximize varied opportunities to respond
SWPBIS Classroom Management “Ten Best” • Maximize Active Engagement • Actively & Continuously Supervise • Respond to Inappropriate Behavior quickly, positively, & directly • Establish multiple strategies for acknowledging appropriate behavior • Generally provide specific feedback for errors & corrects
Tier I Paperwork • Evaluate whether student has received appropriate core instruction through “best practices” of classroom management • If not, complete Tier I paperwork and • Select behavioral areas of concern • Schedule meeting with parent • Send home social history, Working Together document • Vision/hearing form in nurse’s mailbox
Tier I Paperwork • Together with parent: • Document parent’s concerns • Define the behavior • Measurable • Observable • Describe classroom management/core curriculum in class to address behavioral concerns • Gather baseline to track behavior • Implement home-school communication intervention to discuss student’s progress
Defining Behavior Must result in clear, measurable, & objective descriptions of individual, groups, or sequences of related behaviors • Any observable or measurable action or act. • Observable beginning & end • Has measurable dimension(s) • Frequency, duration, latency, force, topography, locus
Which is described in observable terms? Hits with his fist OR Aggressive