Session 12 & 17Complex Functional Behavioral Assessment/ Behavior Intervention Planning Heather Peshak George, Ph.D. University of South Florida – Tampa Bay August 17-18, 2010 WI PBIS Network: Coaches Training – Stevens Point, WI
Agenda • Overview of Behavior Principles • Functional Behavior Assessment • Data Basics • Levels of Positive Behavior Support • ERASE (Liaupsin, Scott, & Nelson) • Prevent-Teach-Reinforce (PTR)
Objectives • Participants will: • Describe behavioral principles underlying functional assessment of problem behavior • Identify measures for baseline data gathering and progress monitoring • Compare and contrast secondary and tertiary behavior support models • Identify key factors that impact intervention effectiveness • Apply an individualized PBS model
What Would You Do If…? • Paul: Shouts profanities and throws things • Kevin: Refuses to respond and turns away from the teacher • Jenny: Stomps out of class without permission
Traditional Approaches to Dealing With Difficult Behavior • Punishment • Exclusion • Counseling
The Problem • The child IS the problem so fix him/her • Punish the child to teach a lesson • We hope the problem will go away…Does it? • Who benefits the most from this approach? • The child HAS a problem so fix it • Change the environment • Teach new skills • Problem less likely to occur
Traditional BIP: Focuses on the student needing to be changed Eliminating undesirable behavior is the goal Uses mostly reactive strategies (consequence-based) Usually includes punitive interventions Positive BIP: Focuses on the context/environment Goal is to replace problem behavior with a functionally equivalent behavior or skill Uses multi-component interventions Preventative Replacement behavior Responding/Reinforcement Comparison of Traditional Behavior Intervention Plans and Positive Behavior Intervention Plans
Given 60 seconds, use 4 straight lines to connect all of the dots without lifting your pen
Behavior • Anything we say or do • Much easier to change things we can observe • Think about whether you can see or hear it • What about thoughts? Intentions? • Best not to focus on these as becomes more of a guessing game
How are Behaviors Learned? Stimulus/Antecedent (Sd) Behavior Consequences/ Reinforcement
Increasing Behaviors • 2 Categories of Reinforcement • Positive • Addition of pleasant stimulus after behavior • Example: getting a popsicle when you say “popsicle” • School examples: verbal praise, earning points, stickers , stars, access to preferred activities….. • Negative • Removal of unpleasant stimulus when target (desired) behavior occurs • Examples: Seat-belt buzzer, erasing name from the board, completing work to keep from sitting out of recess, allowing escape from work contingent upon completion of tasks….
Decreasing Behaviors • Punisher • Addition of an unpleasant stimulus after behavior that decreases the likelihood that behavior will be performed in the future • If the behavior does not decrease as a result of the response, that response is NOT a punisher!!!! (even if it is an unpleasant stimulus) • Example: Suspending a student who does not want to be in class or school—Is suspension a punishment or a reinforcer?
Use of “Punishment” • Must ensure fit with the function of behavior • If behavior is to escape, then expulsion, suspension, time-out, or send to principal or behavior specialist does NOT fit (and will not be effective in decreasing the student’s problem behavior) • If behavior is to get attention, do not send them to the counselor, social worker, or behavior specialist if s/he is going to talk to or calm them • What happens in the main office, the behavior specialists’ or counselors’ office at your school?
Function and Context • People behave for a reason – this is “function” • Does he/she get something? • Tangibles, attention, stimulation, people, etc. • Does he/she avoid or escape something? • People, activities, embarrassment, tasks, etc. • Context • Things in the environment (items, persons, actions, events) affect the likelihood of a behavior
Functional Behavior Assessment • Purpose: • Assess behavior in relation to environmental contexts (antecedents and consequences) • To identify the function(s) maintaining problem behavior • To guide the development of an individualized, data-based behavior support plan
Functional Behavior Assessment • More than just paperwork to meet IDEA • More than just a step before a diagnosis or placement change is made • An ongoing process, not an event • Is a tool to: • Change the environment to make behavior less likely • Teach the student new skills • Set the student up for success
The FBA Process • Identify and define problem behavior • Identify patterns of problem (and appropriate) behavior-- antecedent and consequent events • Identify the function of behavior—hypothesis • Develop an intervention plan • Monitor the effectiveness of the intervention
Identify Problem Behavior • The definition needs to be operationalized • Observable • Measurable • Accurate • Detailed • Can you hear it, see it?
Non-Examples Tantrum Hyperactive Angry Aggressive Examples Screams, falls to floor, pounds fists on the floor Jumps out of chair w/o permission; shouts responses Throws materials on the floor when asked to do math tasks Punches peers on their body with his fists Define Problem Behavior
Functional Behavior Assessment/Gathering Information • Indirect • Record Review • Interviewing—PTR Assessment • Checklists—ERASE/PTR Assessment • Direct • Scatter plots • ABC Data Collection—ABC Card • Select best ways to gather information about operationalized behavior
The ABCs of Behavior • A = Antecedent • B = Behavior • C = Consequence
ABC Analysis • Antecedent: • What happens immediately before the behavior? • Behavior: • The actions of the student • Consequence: • What happens immediately after the behavior?
ABC ABC Behavior Antecedent Consequence Medical & Physiological Environmental Curricular & Instructional Interactional Personal & Control Issues What a Person Says or Does Social/attention Tangible Escape/avoidance Sensory/intrinsic Under what circumstances does behavior occur? What outcomes are produced?
Activity • As a group, determine the function of behavior for the next two students • Answer using your hands (appropriately): • Right hand up: Escape • Left hand up: Attention • Both hands up: Sensory • Both hands down: I am not paying attention
Activity: ABC Analysis JOHN LEAVES CLASS WITHOUT PERMISSION – WHY? All things that happen just before behavior All things that happen just after behavior The student’s behavior John stares at his paper, gets up, kicks the desk, and stomps out of the classroom Teacher tells John to stop and get back to his seat. She writes a referral to the office. John is suspended for 3 days. John fights with his girlfriend before school. The teacher asks him to do an independent writing assignment. NAME THAT FUNCTION! Possible Function of John’s Leaving Class Behavior: WHEN JOHN IS ASKED TO DO A NON-PREFERRED INDEPENDENT ASSIGNMENT REQIRING WRITING, HE WILL LEAVE CLASS TO AVOID DOING THE WORK. THE BEHAVIOR IS MORE LIKELY TO OCCUR WHEN HE HAS A FIGHT WITH HIS GIRLFRIEND.
Activity: ABC Analysis BRENDA HITS OTHER STUDENTS - WHY? All things that happen just before behavior The student’s behavior All things that happen just after behavior Brenda punches Susan on the arm Susan calls Brenda a “creep face” and laughs at her Susan stops laughing and walks away NAME THAT FUNCTION! Possible Function of Brenda’s Hitting Behavior: WHEN OTHER STUDENTS CALL HER NAMES AND LAUGH AT HER, BRENDA HITS THEM BECAUSE IT MAKES THEM GO AWAY (ESCAPE)
Antecedents(Before Behavior) • Two types • Slow trigger (setting events) • Removed in time from the occurrence of behavior • Fast trigger (immediate antecedent) • Events happen immediately before the problem behavior
Antecedents: Slow Triggers • May happen in or out of the classroom • Are conditions that increase the likelihood behavior will occur • oversleeping • no breakfast • forgotten medication • conflict with . . .
Antecedents: Fast Triggers • Examples • Assignment to easy/difficult • Teasing • Teacher attending to another student • May be consistent • Anytime someone asks student to open book • May only occur when specific event occurs • Only when Ms. Jones asks student to open book
Consequences of Behavior • Responses and/or events occurring after problem behavior • What is the pay-off? • What does the student get? • What does the student avoid?
What is a Hypothesis Statement? • A hypothesis statement is: • an informed, assessment-based explanation of the target behavior • an informed “best” guess about the relation between environmental events or conditions and student’s target behavior
Hypothesis Development • Formula • When (trigger/antecedent/setting event) occurs…. • the student does (describe behavior)… • to (obtain or escape or avoid)…..(function)
Hypothesis Statement: Example • After Chris visits his brother in jail (setting event/slow trigger) and he is asked to complete a task independently (antecedent/fast trigger), Chris shuts his book and puts his head down (behavior) so that theteacher comes over and talks to him and he gets attention (function).
Activity • Are These Hypotheses Complete? • Right hand up: NO! • Both hands up: YES! • Both hands down: I am not paying attention
Are These Hypotheses Complete? • Lisa becomes aggressive when she is angry. • Bob acts out to avoid having to go to work in his supported employment program. • Joseph exhibits self-injurious behavior because he has autism. • Louis brings his cigarette lighter to school to avoid demand situations. • Kristy is more likely to draw on the desk when she is required to participate in independent work for extended periods of time in order to gain teacher attention.
Using the Data-Based Hypothesis to Develop a Behavior Intervention Plan
Behavior Intervention Plan • The intervention plan isa plan that: • is developed for a specific student • addresses specific challenging behavior(s) • provides enough detail for anyone to implement • The intervention plan is not • a general behavior plan • a list of suggestions
Selecting Interventions • Select interventions that will make problem behavior: • Irrelevant—Antecedent or Prevent Interventions • Changes to the environment (the triggers) so that problem behavior is not necessary • Inefficient—Replacement Behaviors or Teach • New behavior is easier and results in a faster outcome than the problem behavior • Ineffective—Responding to Behavior or Reinforce • Responding so that new behavior has the same outcome as problem behavior but greater than problem behavior
Problem Behavior REPLACEMENT Behavior Replacement Behaviors • Replacement behaviors are what we want the student to do instead of the problem behavior • Effective replacement behavior must: • Be incompatible with the problem behavior • Serve the same function as the problem FUNCTION
Two Types ofReplacement Behaviors • Functionally equivalent • More appropriate way to get the same outcome • Not the expected or desired behavior • Intermediary behavior that will be faded • Asking for a break, brain break pass, secret signal for attention, work check pass, tardy pass, requesting cool off or calming strategy • Desired, prosocial • Behavior expected of the student to get the same or different outcome • Raising hand, asking for item, completing assignment, coming to class on time, transitioning
Activity:Identify Replacement Behaviors • For each behavior listed in the table: • Identify one functionally equivalent, intermediary behavior • Identify one desired, expected behavior