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Applied Behavior Analysis for Educational Settings

Applied Behavior Analysis for Educational Settings

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Applied Behavior Analysis for Educational Settings

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  1. Applied Behavior Analysis for Educational Settings Christopher Ewing, MS Behavior Intervention Consultant Arkansas Department of Education

  2. Training Overview • Stages of Learning • Errorless Learning • Prompting and Prompt Fading • Discrete Trial Training • Precision Teaching & Fluency Training • Verbal Behavior • Incidental Teaching • Chaining • Shaping • www.acc.k12.ar.us/BEHAVIOR

  3. Stages of Learning • Acquisition • Mastery/Fluency • Generalization • Maintenance

  4. Errorless Learning • A procedure that reduces the chance of incorrect responses • Makes use of prompts and prompt fading to reduce incorrect responses • Reduces potential of learning incorrect responses

  5. Prompts • Prompts increase the effectiveness of teaching by decreasing the likelihood of incorrect responses. • Types of Prompts • Physical Prompts • Visual Prompts • Verbal Prompts

  6. Physical Prompts • Physically guiding the student • Hand-over-hand • Use the least force needed to ensure correct response • Never physically force the child’s movement • Effective for teaching motor skills

  7. Visual Prompts • Visual cues to ensure correct response • 4 types of visual prompts • Gestural • Picture • Model • Positional

  8. Verbal Prompts • Verbal instructions • Words or phrases • Can include sign language

  9. Prompt FadingGeneral Guidelines • Determine how the prompt will be faded before you start fading. • Must be done in an orderly manner. • Begin fading when correct responding averages 80% correct. • Delay prompt • 2-3 consecutive incorrect responses return to the last prompt level that the student was successful

  10. Prompt FadingPhysical Prompts • Reduce the force of grip • Light touch • Shadowing or change position of prompt

  11. Prompt FadingVisual Prompts

  12. Prompt FadingVisual Prompts

  13. Prompt FadingVisual Prompts

  14. Prompt FadingVisual Prompts

  15. Prompt FadingVisual Prompts

  16. Prompt FadingVisual Prompts

  17. Prompt FadingVisual Prompts

  18. Prompt FadingGestural Prompts Trainer Student

  19. Prompt FadingGestural Prompts Trainer Student

  20. Prompt FadingGestural Prompts Trainer Student

  21. Prompt FadingGestural Prompts Trainer Student

  22. Prompt FadingPositional Prompts Trainer Student

  23. Prompt FadingPositional Prompts Trainer Student

  24. Prompt FadingPositional Prompts Trainer Student

  25. Prompt FadingPositional Prompts Trainer Student

  26. Selection-Based Imitation • Used to teach receptive language • Sequence of Implementation • Linear configuration • Ensure attending • Field expansion • Strengthen scanning and increase field size • Linear configuration/different positions • Solidify scanning and prevent positional responding • Two steps • Increase flexible scanning and increase attention • Transfer to receptive labeling • “Do this.” is changed the label of the item • Gestural prompt is gradually faded • Response comes under control of verbal label of item

  27. Selection-Based ImitationLinear Configuration Trainer “Do this.” Student

  28. Selection-Based ImitationField Expansion Trainer “Do this.” Student

  29. Selection-Based ImitationLinear Configuration/Different Positions Trainer “Do this.” Student

  30. Selection-Based ImitationLinear Configuration/Different PositionsField Expansion Trainer “Do this.” Student

  31. Selection-Based ImitationNon-Linear Configuration Trainer “Do this.” Student

  32. Prompt FadingVerbal Prompts • Shorten the instruction • Shorten the word • Give beginning sounds

  33. Instruction Response Consequence Discrete Trial Training • A structured way of teaching • Each trial has a clear beginning and ending • Trials are distinct and succinct • A trial is one set of instructions

  34. Discrete Trial TrainingComponents • Presentation of Materials • Instructions • Prompting • Delivery of Consequences

  35. Discrete Trial TrainingPresenting the Materials • Materials are ready and organized • Unnecessary items are removed from area • Materials and reinforcers are accessible to trainer • Items must be randomized each trial

  36. Discrete Trial TrainingRandomization of Items Trainer Student

  37. Discrete Trial TrainingRandomization of Items Trainer Student

  38. Discrete Trial TrainingRandomization of Items Trainer Student

  39. Discrete Trial Training5 Components of Effective Instructions • Clear and easily identifiable • Appropriate for the task • Consistent for new tasks • Uninterrupted • Gain student’s attention

  40. Delivering ConsequencesCorrect Responses • Initially reinforce all correct responses • Once prompts are faded, use praise only to signal correct prompted responses

  41. Delivering ConsequencesIncorrect Responses • Do not use “No, no” prompt • Remove materials • If prompt has been faded, do not prompt after first incorrect response • Present materials and instruction • Reinstate last successful prompt after 2 incorrect responses

  42. Discrete Trial Training Practice

  43. Precision Teaching • A fluency based set of methods and practice procedures which adjust curricula for each student to maximize learning

  44. Precision TeachingExamples of Success • Students at Malcom X College made 2 grade level gains in 16 hours of instruction (Johnson & Layng 1994) • Sacajawea Elementary students gained 20-40 percentage points within 3 yrs. on standard achievement tests (Beck & Clement 1991) • Morningside Academy offers 2 money back guarantee for program • Students will progress 2 grade levels each year • Time on task will increase from 1-3 min. to 20 or more minutes (Johnson & Layng 1994) • Have not refunded any monies to date

  45. Precision TeachingKey Features • The learner knows best • Uses frequency for measurement • Daily charting on the Standard Celeration Chart • Focused instruction and practice on directly observable behavior

  46. Precision TeachingBenefits • Frequency of response is the basic unit of measurement • Free operant responding • Emphasizes teaching sequentially • Instructional decisions are data based • Multiple instructional techniques can be utilized

  47. Precision Teaching5 Steps • Select a Task • Set an Aim • Count and Teach • Develop a Learning Picture • Decide What to Do

  48. Precision TeachingSelect a Task • Countable • The movement must be observable and measurable • Counting Period • Consistent • At least 8-10 movements • Correct/Incorrect Pair • Define correct and incorrect movements • Count both correct and incorrect movements for each counting period • Learning Channel • Input and Output • Multiple learning channel sets for each skill • Hard-To-Do • Goal is to teach a new skill

  49. Precision TeachingLearning Channels INPUT See Hear Touch Think OUTPUT Say Write Touch Sign Reach Press Mark Point Match

  50. Precision TeachingLearning Channels Sample Learning Channel Sets See/Write See/Say Think/Do Hear/Write Think/Write Hear/Sign See/Match SeeHear/Touch