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Applied Behavior Analysis for Teachers

Applied Behavior Analysis for Teachers

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Applied Behavior Analysis for Teachers

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  1. Applied Behavior Analysis for Teachers Chapter 3: Preparing Behavioral Objectives

  2. Chapter Overview • Definition and Purpose of Behavioral Objectives • Establishing Behavioral Objectives • Writing Behavioral Objectives • Expanding the Scope of the Basic Behavioral Objective • Behavioral Objectives and the Individual Education Program (IEP)

  3. Definitions Educational Goals: “statements of annual program intent” Behavioral Objectives: “Statements of actual instructional intent, usually for a three- to four-month period for individuals with more severe disabilities and for the length of time of the school’s grading period for students with mild disabilities.”

  4. Severe disability – • Cognitive – categorize objects according to their function • Communication – demonstrate increased receptive understanding of functional labels • Motor – develop gross motor capability of her upper extremities • Social – participate appropriately in group activities • Vocational – complete assembly tasks for a period of one hour • Maladaptive behavior – decrease out-of-seat behavior • Self-help – demonstrate the ability to dress independently

  5. Considerations When Developing Educational Goals • Evaluation Data • Student’s past and projected rate of development compared with long-range plans for his/her future • Students presenting physical and communicative capabilities • Inappropriate behaviors that must be brought under control • The amount of instructional time available • Prerequisites necessary for acquiring new skills • Functional utility of the skills • Availability of specialized materials, equipment, or resource personnel

  6. Components of a Behavioral Objective • Identify the Learner • Identify the Target Behavior • Identify the Conditions of the Intervention • Identify Criteria for Acceptable Performance

  7. Behavioral Objective: Identify the Learner • Be specific… • Jason will • The fifth grade students will…

  8. Behavioral Objective: Identify the Target Behavior • State what the student will do…be specific • Three basic purposes for including target behavior: • Ensures those responsible for managing the target behavior are consistently observing the same behavior • Allows for confirmation by third party that the behavior change actually occurred • Facilitates continuity of instruction when people other than the teacher are involved • Operational definition – providing concrete examples of a target behavior. This minimizes disagreements among observers as to the behavior’s occurrence.

  9. What’s Wrong With These Objectives? • “Charles will expand his knowledge of the U.S. capitols.” • “Laura will gain an appreciation of friendships and will get along with her peers.” • Steven will learn the vocabulary words.” • When presented with menu, Alan will order a meal.” • For three weeks, Jackson will get out of bed on time.” • Beatrice will be ready for bed each night for 1 month.” • “After watching the nightly news, Madeline will work on her homework for 1 hour.”

  10. Are these clearer? • “Charles will recall 10 capitals connected to their states.” • Steven will learn and correctly recall the definitions of the vocabulary words presented in the Acme reader.” • When presented with a menu, Alan will order a meal on the menu from the breakfast selection.” • For one week, Jackson will comply with getting out of bed on time at 7:00 AM immediately upon request.” • Beatrice will be ready for bed (brushed teeth, in pajamas) each night at 8:00 PM for 1 month.” • “Madeline will work on her homework for 1 hour after coming home from school that includes answering 80% of the homework correctly.”

  11. Measurable Terminology • Understand……………………? • Appreciate…………………….? • Characterize………………….? • Recognize……………………..? • Judge……………………………? • Formulate……………………..? • Rationalize…………………….? • Evaluate………………………..? • Interpret………………………..? • Analyze………………………….?

  12. Behavioral Objective:Identify the Conditions of the Intervention • Includes a statement of the conditions • Verbal request or instructions • Josh, pick up the blue cup. • Written instructions or format • Draw a line to the items that match. • Demonstration • This is how you pick up the blue cup. • Materials to be used • Blue cup, red cup • Worksheet with ten items that match. • Environmental setting or timing • In the lunchroom • During independent work time • Manner of assistance • Independent • With partial physical assistance • With verbal prompts

  13. Behavioral Objective:Identify Criteria for Acceptable Performance • Criterion statements set minimum performance standards • Types of Criterion statements: • Number or Percentage of Correct Responses • Duration – length of time student performs the behavior • Latency – length of time between the instruction and student performs the behavior • Criterion statements should be based on the following: • Nature of the content • Abilities of the students • Learning opportunities to be provided

  14. Expanding the Scope of the Basic Behavioral Objectives Generalization Maintenance Fluency Acquisition • Hierarchy of Response Competence Increasing functional use of a response • Hierarchy of Levels of Learning (Bloom, 1956) Increasing functional use of a behavior Evaluation Synthesis Analysis Application Comprehension Knowledge

  15. Six Elements of the IEP • A statement of the student’s present levels of educational performance • A statement of measurable annual goals, including short-term objectives for students with significant disabilities • Appropriate objective criteria and evaluation procedures and schedules for evaluating progress toward criteria. • A statement of the specific special education and related services to be provided to the student • Projected dates for initiation of services and the anticipated duration of the services • The extent to which the students will be able to participate in general education programs, and any modifications or accommodations necessary to enable that participation

  16. Additional Components to the IEP • Individual Transition Plan (ITP) • Links long-term planning for postsecondary life with annual school year planning • Developed at age 16 years or earlier if appropriate • Must include appropriate measurable postsecondary goals

  17. Additional Components of an IEP • Behavioral Intervention Plan (BIP) • Links the management of behaviors that impede instruction with positive intervention strategies to reduce the occurrence of inappropriate behaviors and increase socially and contextually appropriate behavior • Includes following elements: • Operational definition of the target behaviors impeding instruction • Results of a functional behavior assessment • Intervention strategies to be used • Related behavioral objectives

  18. Key Terms Behavioral objective Educational goals Operational definition Acquisition Fluency Maintenance Overlearning Generalization Individualized Education Plan (IEP) Individualized Transition Plan (ITP) Behavioral Intervention Plan (BIP)