Download
introduction to applied behavior analysis n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Introduction to Applied Behavior Analysis PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Introduction to Applied Behavior Analysis

Introduction to Applied Behavior Analysis

599 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Introduction to Applied Behavior Analysis

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Introduction to Applied Behavior Analysis Matt Habedank NCSS Ed Sbardellati, PhD. Washington County Mental Health August 16 , 2012

  2. Training Overview • What is Applied Behavior Analysis? • A Framework for Understanding Human Behavior • Data Collection • Basic Elements of Effective Interventions • Functions of Behavior

  3. WHAT IS ABA?

  4. What is ABA? • A discipline committed to the understanding and improvement of human behavior • Focuses on objectively defined, observable behaviors of social significance • Seeks to improve behavior while demonstrating reliability between applied interventions and the noted improvement

  5. What is ABA? • “The science in which procedures derived from the principles of behavior are systematically applied to improve socially significant behavior to a meaningful degree” BAER, WOLF AND RISLEY (1968)

  6. ABA defined (cont.) • APPLIED • Refers to the social significance of the behavior (of immediate importance to the individual or society) • BEHAVIOR • Behavior is in need of improvement • Behavior must be observable and measurable

  7. ABA defined (cont.) • ANALYSIS • Believability • Demonstrates a functional relationship between behavior and intervention • controls the occurrence and nonoccurrence of a behavior

  8. Human Behavior

  9. Behavior • “is the movement of an organism or of its parts in a frame of reference provided by the organism or by various external objects or field” • (Cooper et al, 2008)

  10. Behavior • Human Behavior • Behavior is LEARNED • Behavior is a function of the environment

  11. Assumptions of ABA • BEHAVIOR IS LEARNED • B=(F)E • New behaviors can be taught • Old behaviors can be unlearned

  12. Assumptions of ABA • We change behavior by changing the ENVIRONMENT

  13. Behavior • Overt • An action that can be observed and recorded by a person other than the one engaging in the behavior • Must pass the Dead Man’s Test

  14. Behavior • Covert • An action that can NOT be observed and recorded by a person other than the one engaging in the behavior • Private events • ABA predominantly addresses overt behaviors • Cognitive-Behavior Modification addresses covert behaviors

  15. Key Terms & Concepts • Stimulus • An environmental event that can be detected by one of the senses • Is any condition, event, or change in the physical world

  16. Key Terms and Concepts • Response • One instance or occurrence of a particular behavior • A specific instance of a particular behavior • Are the focus of observation and measurement in behavioral studies • Is the measurable unit of analysis in the science of behavior

  17. Stimulus Control • Stimulus Control • Increased probability that a behavior will occur in the presence of certain environmental conditions • If a principal yells… • If a police officer approaches… • If a telephone rings…

  18. Consequence • Occurs after a behavior and • Effects only future behavior • --Results in an increase, decrease or no effect on behavior • -Alters the probability that similar responses will be emitted under similar stimulus conditions in the future

  19. Respondent Behavior • It is a reflex • Respond INVOLUNTARILY to certain stimuli

  20. RESPONDENT BEHAVIOR STIMULUS Flash of light High temperature ELICITS RESPONDENTS Pupil contraction Sweating

  21. Operant Behavior • Is VOLUNTARY • Influenced by the antecedents and consequences surrounding the behavior

  22. Three-term Contingency ANTECEDENTS BEHAVIOR CONSEQUENCES What happened immediately preceding the behavior What happened immediately after the behavior Operant Behavior

  23. Three Term Contingency Reinforcement Antecedent BehaviorConsequence Cue--------R--------C+ Reductive Procedures Cue--------R--------C-

  24. Reinforcement • When a stimulus change immediately follows a response and increases the future frequency of that type of behavior in similar conditions • Positive Reinforcement- behavior is followed by a consequence that serves to increase the behavior • Negative Reinforcement- behavior is followed by avoidance of a consequence that serves to increase behavior

  25. Reductive Consequence • When a stimulus change immediately follows a response and decreases the future frequency of that type of behavior in similar conditions • Positive punishment- a behavior is followed by a consequence which serves to reduce the behavior • Negative punishment- a behavior is followed by loss of a reinforcer which serves to reduce the behavior

  26. Complexity of Human Behavior • Huge range of behaviors • Competing contingencies • Go out on the town or Study for the exam? • Single event has multiple effects • Reduce behavior • Increase behavior • Escape • Response chains

  27. Complexity of Human Behavior • Complexity of Controlling Variables • Environmental constructs are complex • Multiple causation • Setting events

  28. Complexity of Human Behavior • Individual Differences • Different responses to the same environmental conditions • NO two people experience the world in the same way • Histories of reinforcement • Individual motor & sensory deficits

  29. Data Collection

  30. Data Collection Direct And Daily Data • Clearly define the behavior we are measuring • Operational Definition • a clear description of the behavior which is written in simple, lay terms such that anyone can determine if the behavior did or did not occur

  31. Quantitative Measures • Frequency • Tallies of the total number of behaviors which occurred or the number of incidents of behavior which occurred in a specified time period

  32. Quantitative Measures • Duration • The elapsed time a behavior occurred

  33. Quantitative Measures • Intensity • Descriptions or ratings of the severity of behavior • Can focus upon: • the number of behaviors within an incident and/or • the duration of the incident and/or • specific Likert-type scale or checklist

  34. Interval Recording • Coding the presence or absence of a specific behavior during a predetermined time period-i.e., whole, partial, momentary • May include frequencies of behavior within an interval or measures of the rate of the behavior

  35. Graphic Displays • Use of line, bar or pie graphs to describe the occurrence of a behavior over time or the proportions of behavior • Very helpful in evaluating the effectiveness of a treatment procedure and in determining when to change a procedure

  36. Activities • How would you measure THIS behavior? • Video data collection OPERATIONAL DEFINITION • OBJECT AGGRESSION- DEFINED AS AN INCIDENT OF BEHAVIOR IN WHICH AN INANIMATE OBJECT HAS BEEN DAMAGED, DESTROYED OR KNOCKED OVER. AN INCIDENT WILL BE CONSIDERED AS OVER WHEN FIVE SECONDS HAS ELAPSED WITHOUT ANY DAMAGE, DESTRUCTION OR MOVEMENT.

  37. Interobserver Agreement (IOA) • A measure of validity • Multiple calculations • This is TOTAL COUNT IOA Total # of agreements ____________________________ X 100=% Total # of agreements + disagreements

  38. Observer 1 7 instances of swearing Observer 2 9 instances of swearing IOA Example-Swearing # of Agreements=7 # of Disagreements=2 IOA 7 > 7 > .77 X 100=77% 7+2 9

  39. PBISFramework for Treatment

  40. Basic Elements of Effective Interventions (PBIS) • PROACTIVE • Modify the environment • EDUCATIVE • Teach pro-social behaviors and social skills which are alternatives to challenging behaviors • FUNCTIONAL • Manage consequences of behavior

  41. Why Bother? • Strong theoretical and empirical support for behavioral procedures • 40+ years of research in behavior change with people behavioral and developmental disorders autism • Particularly in the areas of Functional Behavioral Assessment and positive approaches to behavior change

  42. Reactive Approaches PUNISHMENT • May teach what not to do, but not what to do • May punish the child, but may not actually reduce the behavior in the natural environment

  43. Reactive Approaches (cont.) EXCLUSION • May address an immediate need, but reduce’s the child’s opportunity to learn how to successfully interact with the natural environment

  44. So Let’s Talk About Some Positive Approaches

  45. Proactive • Modifying the environment to reduce the probability that the challenging behaviors will occur • Requires assessment to identify the mismatch between the child and the environment • Can involve a myriad of possible interventions

  46. May Involve a VARIETY of Interventions • Changes in settings and situations in which the behavior occurs • Alter or eliminate setting events associated with challenging behaviors • Identify and address precursor behaviors associated with challenging behaviors

  47. Proactive Interventions (cont.) • Make instructional or curricular changes • Establishing predictable routines or changing expectations • Increase opportunities for making choices, exerting personal control