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Introduction to Applied Behavior Analysis and Positive Behavior Supports

Introduction to Applied Behavior Analysis and Positive Behavior Supports

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Introduction to Applied Behavior Analysis and Positive Behavior Supports

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  1. Introduction to Applied Behavior Analysis and Positive Behavior Supports Ed Sbardellati, Ph.D. Washington County Mental Health Sherri Rosenberg, M.A., BCBA Washington County Mental Health August 19, 2010

  2. Training Overview • What Are ABA And PBS? • A Framework for Understanding Human Behavior • Basic Elements of Effective Interventions • Functions of Behavior • Antecedent-Based Interventions • Consequence-Based Interventions • Skill Building • Data Collection Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  3. What are ABA & PBS?

  4. What is ABA? • A discipline committed to the understanding and improvement of human behavior • Focuses on objectively defined, observable behaviors of social significance • Seeks to improve behavior while demonstrating reliability between applied interventions and the noted improvement Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  5. What is ABA? • “The science in which procedures derived from the principles of behavior are systematically applied to improve socially significant behavior to a meaningful degree” BAER, WOLF AND RISLEY (1968) Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  6. ABA defined (cont.) • APPLIED • Refers to the social significance of the behavior (of immediate importance to the individual or society) • BEHAVIOR • Behavior is in need of improvement • Behavior must be observable and measurable Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  7. ABA defined (cont.) • ANALYSIS • Believability • Demonstrates a functional relationship between behavior and intervention • controls the occurrence and nonoccurrence of a behavior Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  8. What is Positive Behavior Support? • A set of research-based strategies used to increase quality of life and decrease problem behavior by teaching new skills and making changes in a person's environment Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  9. PBS combines • Valued Outcomes • Behavioral and Biomedical Science • Validated Procedures • Systems change to enhance quality of life and reduce problem behaviors Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  10. Human Behavior

  11. Behavior • “is the movement of an organism or of its parts in a frame of reference provided by the organism or by various external objects or field” (Cooper et al, 2008) Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  12. Behavior • Human Behavior • Behavior is LEARNED • Behavior is a function of the environment Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  13. Assumptions of ABA • BEHAVIOR IS LEARNED • B=(F)E • New behaviors can be taught • Old behaviors can be unlearned Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  14. Assumptions of ABA • We change behavior by changing the ENVIRONMENT Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  15. Behavior • Overt • An action that can be observed and recorded by a person other than the one engaging in the behavior • Must pass the Dead Man’s Test Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  16. Behavior • Covert • An action that can NOT be observed and recorded by a person other than the one engaging in the behavior • Private events • ABA predominantly addresses overt behaviors • Cognitive-Behavior Modification addresses covert behaviors Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  17. Key Terms & Concepts Stimulus • An environmental event that can be detected by one of the senses • Is any condition, event, or change in the physical world Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  18. Key Terms and Concepts Response • One instance or occurrence of a particular behavior • A specific instance of a particular behavior • Are the focus of observation and measurement in behavioral studies • Is the measurable unit of analysis in the science of behavior Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  19. Stimulus Control Stimulus Control • Increased probability that a behavior will occur in the presence of certain environmental conditions • If a principal yells… • If a police officer approaches… • If a telephone rings… Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  20. Consequence • EEffects only future behavior • RResults in an increase, decrease or no effect on behavior The probability that similar responses will be emitted under future similar stimulus conditions Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  21. Respondent Behavior • NNO LEARNING REQUIRED It is a reflex • RRespond INVOLUNTARILY to certain stimuli Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  22. Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  23. Operant Behavior Is VOLUNTARY • IInfluenced by the antecedents and consequences surrounding the behavior Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  24. Operant Behavior Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  25. Three Term Contingency Reinforcement Cue----------R----------C+ Reductive Procedures Cue----------R----------C- Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  26. Reinforcement • When a stimulus change immediately follows a response and increases the future frequency of that type of behavior in similar conditions Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  27. Reductive Consequence • When a stimulus change immediately follows a response and decreases the future frequency of that type of behavior in similar conditions Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  28. Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  29. Complexity of Human Behavior • Huge range of behaviors • Competing contingencies • Go out on the town or Study for the exam? • Single event has multiple effects • Reduce behavior • Increase behavior • Escape • Response chains Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  30. Complexity of Human Behavior Complexity of Controlling Variables • Environmental constructs are complex • Multiple causation • Setting events Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  31. Complexity of Human Behavior Individual Differences • Different responses to the same environmental conditions • NO two people experience the world in the same way • Histories of reinforcement • Individual motor & sensory deficits Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  32. Reinforcer Assessment • Activity Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  33. Framework for Treatment

  34. Basic Elements of Effective Interventions • PROACTIVE • Modify the environment • EDUCATIVE • Teach pro-social behaviors and social skills which are alternatives to challenging behaviors • FUNCTIONAL • Manage consequences of behavior Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  35. Why Bother? • Strong theoretical and empirical support for behavioral procedures • 40+ years of research in behavior change with people behavioral and developmental disorders autism • Particularly in the areas of Functional Behavioral Assessment and positive approaches to behavior change Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  36. Why? • The use of the “Positive Behavioral Supports” model is becoming more and more widespread as reactive approaches have not proven uniformly successful Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  37. Reactive Approaches PUNISHMENT • May teach what not to do, but not what to do • May punish the child, but may not actually reduce the behavior in the natural environment Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  38. Reactive Approaches (cont.) EXCLUSION • May address an immediate need, but reduce’s the child’s opportunity to learn how to successfully interact with the natural environment Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  39. So let’s talk some more about positive approaches Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  40. Proactive • Modifying the environment to reduce the probability that the challenging behaviors will occur • Requires assessment to identify the mismatch between the child and the environment • Can involve a myriad of possible interventions Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  41. May Involve a VARIETY of Interventions • Changes in settings and situations in which the behavior occurs • Alter or eliminate setting events associated with challenging behaviors • Identify and address precursor behaviors associated with challenging behaviors Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  42. Proactive Interventions (cont.) • Make instructional or curricular changes • Establishing predictable routines or changing expectations • Increase opportunities for making choices, exerting personal control Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  43. Skill Building • Specifically teach behaviors and skills which are functional alternatives to challenging behaviors • Behaviors may be in the learner’s repertoire or may have to be shaped over time Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  44. Functional • Developing management procedures which address the functions of behavior • Manage consequences such that pro-social behaviors are increased and challenging behaviors are reduced Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  45. Focus On Behavior • We need to clearly define the behavior(s) we want to increase or decrease • Identify the pro-social skill(s) we want to teach as a replacement behavior(s) • Include these pro-social skills or behaviors in the learner’s individualized behavior change plan Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  46. Focus on Behavior (cont.) • Focus procedures (like a laser beam) on the behaviors we want to increase and decrease • Carry out procedures consistently over time and across staff Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  47. Focus on Behavior (cont.) • Evaluate effects of procedures on chosen behaviors • Daily data collection • Revise procedures as necessary Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  48. Functions of Behavior • A note on behavior • Abruscato’s Second Law Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  49. A Note on Behavior • Our behavior is related to and governed by its context • Can be interpreted as being functional, often communicative, purposeful and meaningful for the person • Can be affected by internal events • physiological conditions and emotional states Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  50. A Note on Behavior (cont.) • Is affected by factors outside the immediate context, including relationships, activity patterns and lifestyle issues • Behavior changes as people mature and develop new competencies Sbardellati/Rosenberg