introduction to applied behavior analysis and positive behavior supports n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Introduction to Applied Behavior Analysis and Positive Behavior Supports PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Introduction to Applied Behavior Analysis and Positive Behavior Supports

Introduction to Applied Behavior Analysis and Positive Behavior Supports

154 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Introduction to Applied Behavior Analysis and Positive Behavior Supports

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Introduction to Applied Behavior Analysis and Positive Behavior Supports Ed Sbardellati, Ph.D. Washington County Mental Health Sherri Rosenberg, M.A., BCBA Washington County Mental Health August 19, 2010

  2. Training Overview • What Are ABA And PBS? • A Framework for Understanding Human Behavior • Basic Elements of Effective Interventions • Functions of Behavior • Antecedent-Based Interventions • Consequence-Based Interventions • Skill Building • Data Collection Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  3. What are ABA & PBS?

  4. What is ABA? • A discipline committed to the understanding and improvement of human behavior • Focuses on objectively defined, observable behaviors of social significance • Seeks to improve behavior while demonstrating reliability between applied interventions and the noted improvement Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  5. What is ABA? • “The science in which procedures derived from the principles of behavior are systematically applied to improve socially significant behavior to a meaningful degree” BAER, WOLF AND RISLEY (1968) Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  6. ABA defined (cont.) • APPLIED • Refers to the social significance of the behavior (of immediate importance to the individual or society) • BEHAVIOR • Behavior is in need of improvement • Behavior must be observable and measurable Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  7. ABA defined (cont.) • ANALYSIS • Believability • Demonstrates a functional relationship between behavior and intervention • controls the occurrence and nonoccurrence of a behavior Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  8. What is Positive Behavior Support? • A set of research-based strategies used to increase quality of life and decrease problem behavior by teaching new skills and making changes in a person's environment Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  9. PBS combines • Valued Outcomes • Behavioral and Biomedical Science • Validated Procedures • Systems change to enhance quality of life and reduce problem behaviors Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  10. Human Behavior

  11. Behavior • “is the movement of an organism or of its parts in a frame of reference provided by the organism or by various external objects or field” (Cooper et al, 2008) Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  12. Behavior • Human Behavior • Behavior is LEARNED • Behavior is a function of the environment Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  13. Assumptions of ABA • BEHAVIOR IS LEARNED • B=(F)E • New behaviors can be taught • Old behaviors can be unlearned Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  14. Assumptions of ABA • We change behavior by changing the ENVIRONMENT Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  15. Behavior • Overt • An action that can be observed and recorded by a person other than the one engaging in the behavior • Must pass the Dead Man’s Test Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  16. Behavior • Covert • An action that can NOT be observed and recorded by a person other than the one engaging in the behavior • Private events • ABA predominantly addresses overt behaviors • Cognitive-Behavior Modification addresses covert behaviors Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  17. Key Terms & Concepts Stimulus • An environmental event that can be detected by one of the senses • Is any condition, event, or change in the physical world Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  18. Key Terms and Concepts Response • One instance or occurrence of a particular behavior • A specific instance of a particular behavior • Are the focus of observation and measurement in behavioral studies • Is the measurable unit of analysis in the science of behavior Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  19. Stimulus Control Stimulus Control • Increased probability that a behavior will occur in the presence of certain environmental conditions • If a principal yells… • If a police officer approaches… • If a telephone rings… Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  20. Consequence • EEffects only future behavior • RResults in an increase, decrease or no effect on behavior The probability that similar responses will be emitted under future similar stimulus conditions Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  21. Respondent Behavior • NNO LEARNING REQUIRED It is a reflex • RRespond INVOLUNTARILY to certain stimuli Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  22. Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  23. Operant Behavior Is VOLUNTARY • IInfluenced by the antecedents and consequences surrounding the behavior Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  24. Operant Behavior Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  25. Three Term Contingency Reinforcement Cue----------R----------C+ Reductive Procedures Cue----------R----------C- Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  26. Reinforcement • When a stimulus change immediately follows a response and increases the future frequency of that type of behavior in similar conditions Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  27. Reductive Consequence • When a stimulus change immediately follows a response and decreases the future frequency of that type of behavior in similar conditions Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  28. Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  29. Complexity of Human Behavior • Huge range of behaviors • Competing contingencies • Go out on the town or Study for the exam? • Single event has multiple effects • Reduce behavior • Increase behavior • Escape • Response chains Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  30. Complexity of Human Behavior Complexity of Controlling Variables • Environmental constructs are complex • Multiple causation • Setting events Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  31. Complexity of Human Behavior Individual Differences • Different responses to the same environmental conditions • NO two people experience the world in the same way • Histories of reinforcement • Individual motor & sensory deficits Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  32. Reinforcer Assessment • Activity Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  33. Framework for Treatment

  34. Basic Elements of Effective Interventions • PROACTIVE • Modify the environment • EDUCATIVE • Teach pro-social behaviors and social skills which are alternatives to challenging behaviors • FUNCTIONAL • Manage consequences of behavior Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  35. Why Bother? • Strong theoretical and empirical support for behavioral procedures • 40+ years of research in behavior change with people behavioral and developmental disorders autism • Particularly in the areas of Functional Behavioral Assessment and positive approaches to behavior change Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  36. Why? • The use of the “Positive Behavioral Supports” model is becoming more and more widespread as reactive approaches have not proven uniformly successful Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  37. Reactive Approaches PUNISHMENT • May teach what not to do, but not what to do • May punish the child, but may not actually reduce the behavior in the natural environment Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  38. Reactive Approaches (cont.) EXCLUSION • May address an immediate need, but reduce’s the child’s opportunity to learn how to successfully interact with the natural environment Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  39. So let’s talk some more about positive approaches Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  40. Proactive • Modifying the environment to reduce the probability that the challenging behaviors will occur • Requires assessment to identify the mismatch between the child and the environment • Can involve a myriad of possible interventions Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  41. May Involve a VARIETY of Interventions • Changes in settings and situations in which the behavior occurs • Alter or eliminate setting events associated with challenging behaviors • Identify and address precursor behaviors associated with challenging behaviors Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  42. Proactive Interventions (cont.) • Make instructional or curricular changes • Establishing predictable routines or changing expectations • Increase opportunities for making choices, exerting personal control Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  43. Skill Building • Specifically teach behaviors and skills which are functional alternatives to challenging behaviors • Behaviors may be in the learner’s repertoire or may have to be shaped over time Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  44. Functional • Developing management procedures which address the functions of behavior • Manage consequences such that pro-social behaviors are increased and challenging behaviors are reduced Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  45. Focus On Behavior • We need to clearly define the behavior(s) we want to increase or decrease • Identify the pro-social skill(s) we want to teach as a replacement behavior(s) • Include these pro-social skills or behaviors in the learner’s individualized behavior change plan Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  46. Focus on Behavior (cont.) • Focus procedures (like a laser beam) on the behaviors we want to increase and decrease • Carry out procedures consistently over time and across staff Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  47. Focus on Behavior (cont.) • Evaluate effects of procedures on chosen behaviors • Daily data collection • Revise procedures as necessary Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  48. Functions of Behavior • A note on behavior • Abruscato’s Second Law Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  49. A Note on Behavior • Our behavior is related to and governed by its context • Can be interpreted as being functional, often communicative, purposeful and meaningful for the person • Can be affected by internal events • physiological conditions and emotional states Sbardellati/Rosenberg

  50. A Note on Behavior (cont.) • Is affected by factors outside the immediate context, including relationships, activity patterns and lifestyle issues • Behavior changes as people mature and develop new competencies Sbardellati/Rosenberg