Chapter 8 Review“Covalent Bonding” Pre-AP Chemistry Charles Page High School Stephen L. Cotton
Chapter 8 Review • What is the correct electron configuration arrangement of the four valence electrons of the carbon atom in a methane molecule (CH4): a) 2s22p2, or b) 2s12p3? • Which noble gas has the same electron configuration as the oxygen in a water molecule?
Chapter 8 Review • When placed between oppositely charged metal plates, the region of a water molecule attracted to the negative plate is the ____. • When one atom contributes both bonding electrons in a single covalent bond, the bond is called a(n) ____.
Chapter 8 Review • The shape of the methane molecule (CH4) is called ____. • How is a pair of molecular orbitals formed? • Which elements can form diatomic molecules joined by a single covalent bond? • What is a typical characteristic of an ionic compound?
Chapter 8 Review • Experimental evidence suggests that the H-C-H bond angles in ethene, C2H4, are ____ degrees. • A bond that is not symmetrical along the axis between two atomic nuclei is a(n) ____ bond. • Once formed, how are coordinate covalent bonds different from other covalent bonds?
Chapter 8 Review • What causes hydrogen bonding? • How many electrons can occupy a single molecular orbital? • According to the VSEPR theory, molecules adjust their shapes to keep ____ as far apart as possible. • Which of the following atoms acquires the most negative charge in a covalent bond with hydrogen: a) carbon, or b) oxygen?
Chapter 8 Review • How do atoms achieve noble-gas electron configurations in single covalent bonds? • What is required in order to melt a network solid (besides high heat)? • Molecular orbital theory is based upon what model of the atom? • Where are the electrons most probably located in a molecular bonding orbital?
Chapter 8 Review • A molecule with a single covalent bond is: a) CO2, or b) Cl2? • A bond formed between a silicon atom and an oxygen atom is likely to be a(n) ____ bond. • Which of the following diatomic molecules is joined (seemingly) by a double covalent bond: a) O2, or b) N2?
Chapter 8 Review • What causes water molecules to have a bent shape, according to the VSEPR theory? • Which of these elements does not exist as a diatomic molecule: a) Ne, or b) F? • Which of the following elements can form diatomic molecules held together by triple covalent bonds: a) fluorine, or b) nitrogen?
Chapter 8 Review • Which of the following covalent bonds is the most polar: a) H-F, or b) H-N? • What is shown by the structural formula of a molecule or a polyatomic ion? • What is thought to cause the disperson forces?
Chapter 8 Review • What are the weakest attractions between molecules called? • Which type of solid has the highest melting point: a) ionic solids, or b) network solids? • Why do atoms share electrons in covalent bonds?
Chapter 8 Review • When H1+ forms a bond with H2O to form the hydronium ion (H3O1+), this bond is called a coordinate covalent bond because ____. • How many valid electron dot formulas – having the same number of electron pairs for a molecule or ion – can be written when a resonance structure occurs?
Chapter 8 Review • What is the shape of a molecule with a triple bond? • Which of the forces of molecular attraction is the weakest: a) hydrogen bonding, or b) dispersion forces? • In which of the following compounds is the octet expanded to include 12 electrons: a) PCl5, or b) SF6?
Chapter 8 Review • Which of the following bonds is least reactive: a) C-C, or b) H-H? • What is the name given to pairs of valence electrons that do not participate in bonding in diatomic oxygen molecules? • Why is hydrogen bonding only possible with hydrogen?
Chapter 8 Review • What causes dipole interactions? • How many electrons does carbon need to gain in order to obtain a noble-gas electron configuration? • How many covalent bonds are in a covalently bonded molecule containing 1 phosphorus atom and 3 chlorine atoms?
Chapter 8 Review • How many electrons does a nitrogen atom need to gain in order to attain a noble-gas electron configuration? • What is the bond angle in a water molecule? • How many unshared pairs of electrons are in a molecule of hydrogen iodide?
Chapter 8 Review • How many electrons are shared in a single covalent bond? • What is the total number of covalent bonds normally associated with a single carbon atom in a compound? • How many valence electrons does an iodine atom have? • How many unshared pairs of electrons does the nitrogen atom in ammonia possess?
Chapter 8 Review • How many electrons are shared in a double covalent bond? End of Chapter 8 Review