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14. Chapter. Entry Strategy and Strategic Alliances. Began to sell ATM machines in foreign markets in 1980’s 1980’s Distribution agreement with Philips 1990 Diebold establishes joint venture with IBM 1997 foreign sales 20% of Diebold’s total revenues

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  1. 14 Chapter Entry Strategy and Strategic Alliances

  2. Began to sell ATM machines in foreign markets in 1980’s 1980’s Distribution agreement with Philips 1990 Diebold establishes joint venture with IBM 1997 foreign sales 20% of Diebold’s total revenues Diebold decides to go it alone with local manufacturing presence for local customization Through acquisitions joint ventures Case: Diebold

  3. A firm contemplating foreign expansion must make three decisions Which markets to enter When to enter these markets What is the scale of entry Basic foreign expansion entry decisions

  4. Favorable Politically stable developed and developing nations Free market systems No dramatic upsurge in inflation or private-sector debt Unfavorable Politically unstable developing nations with a mixed or command economy or where speculative financial bubbles have led to excess borrowing Which foreign markets

  5. Advantages in early market entry: First-mover advantage. Build sales volume. Move down experience curve and achieve cost advantage. Create switching costs. Disadvantages: First mover disadvantage - pioneering costs. Changes in government policy. Timing of entry

  6. Large scale entry Strategic Commitments - a decision that has a long-term impact and is difficult to reverse. May cause rivals to rethink market entry. May lead to indigenous competitive response. Small scale entry: Time to learn about market. Reduces exposure risk. Scale of entry

  7. Exporting Turnkey Projects Licensing Franchising Joint Ventures Wholly Owned Subsidiaries Entry modes

  8. Advantages: Avoids cost of establishing manufacturing operations May help achieve experience curve and location economies Disadvantages: May compete with low-cost location manufacturers Possible high transportation costs Tariff barriers Possible lack of control over marketing reps Exporting

  9. Advantages: Can earn a return on knowledge asset Less risky than conventional FDI Disadvantages: No long-term interest in the foreign country May create a competitor Selling process technology may be selling competitive advantage as well Turnkey projects Contractor agrees to handle every detail of project for foreign client

  10. Reduces development costs and risks of establishing foreign enterprise. Lack capital for venture. Unfamiliar or politically volatile market. Overcomes restrictive investment barriers. Others can develop business applications of intangible property. Licensing: Advantages Agreement where licensor grants rights to intangible property to another entity for a specified period of time in return for royalties.

  11. Advantages: Reduces costs and risk of establishing enterprise Disadvantages: May prohibit movement of profits from one country to support operations in another country Quality control Franchising Franchiser sells intangible property and insists on rules for operating business

  12. Advantages: Benefit from local partner’s knowledge. Shared costs/risks with partner. Reduced political risk. Disadvantages: Risk giving control of technology to partner. May not realize experience curve or location economies. Shared ownership can lead to conflict Joint Ventures

  13. Subsidiaries could be Greenfield investments or acquisitions Advantages: No risk of losing technical competence to a competitor Tight control of operations. Realize learning curve and location economies. Disadvantage: Bear full cost and risk Wholly owned subsidiary

  14. Advantages and disadvantages of entry modes

  15. Technological Know-How Wholly owned subsidiary, except: 1. Venture is structured to reduce risk of loss of technology. 2. Technology advantage is transitory. Then licensing or joint venture OK Management Know-How Franchising, subsidiaries (wholly owned or joint venture) Pressure for Cost Reduction Combination of exporting and wholly owned subsidiary Selecting an entry mode

  16. Pro: Quick to execute Preempt competitors Possibly less risky Con: Disappointing results Overpay for firm optimism about value creation (hubris) Culture clash. Problems with proposed synergies Pro: Can build subsidiary it wants Easy to establish operating routines Con: Slow to establish Risky Preemption by aggressive competitors Acquisition and Green-field- pros & cons Greenfield Acquisition

  17. Acquisition or Green-field? Acquisition Well-established, incumbent firms. Competitors interested in entry. embedded skills, routines, culture. Green-field No competitors

  18. Cooperative agreements between potential or actual competitors. Advantages: Facilitate entry into market Share fixed costs Bring together skills and assets that neither company has or can develop Establish industry technology standards Disadvantages: Competitors get low cost route to technology and markets Strategic Alliances

  19. High cost of technology development Company may not have skill, money or people to go it alone Good way to learn Good way to secure access to foreign markets Host country may require some local ownership Alliances are popular

  20. Firms join to attain world leadership Each partner has significant strength to bring to the alliance A true global vision Relationship is horizontal not vertical When competing in markets not part of alliance, they retain their own identity Global Alliances, however, are different

  21. Get as much information as possible on the potential partner Collect data from informed third parties Former partners Investment bankers Former employees Get to know the potential partner before committing Partner selection

  22. Structuring the alliance to reduce opportunism Fig 14.1

  23. Characteristics of a strategic alliance Independence of Participants Benefits Technology Products Control Ongoing Contributions Shared Benefits Markets Cooperation 14-23

  24. Managing the alliance • Build trust • Relational capital • Learning from partners • Diffusion of knowledge

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