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Chapter 10: Water: Process, Supply, & Use

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Chapter 10: Water: Process, Supply, & Use

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Chapter 10: Water: Process, Supply, & Use

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  1. Chapter 10: Water: Process, Supply, & Use

  2. Water cycle - fig p 304 • water moves through the system • ocean • atmosphere • precipitation • land • glaciers • lakes • streams • distribution & residence time - table p 305

  3. Surface Water • watershed - drainage basin • supply factors • geology • basin shape, relief, slope, efficiency • orientation to storms • precipitation - type, intensity, duration, annual variation • vegetation (trees, grass, crops, none) • animals • groundwater flow

  4. Surface Water • Sediment yield • geology • topography • climate • vegetation • land-use

  5. Groundwater • What is the source of groundwater? • recharge • precipitation (ultimate source • influent -losing stream

  6. fig p 309 & 310 zone of aeration vadose/unsaturated zone capillary fringe water table zone of saturation classification of units aquifer unconfined confined perched artesian aquitard/aquiclude groundwater distribution

  7. groundwater discharge • effluent/gaining stream - base flow • spring • well

  8. groundwater flow • Darcy’s law Q=KiA • K = hydraulic conductivity - table p 312 • permeability • porosity • i = hydraulic gradient = h/l • h • difference in water table elevation • water flows from hi pressure to low pressure • l = distance between wells • A = x-sectional area • rate of flow - cm/day (at best • residence time

  9. wells • fig p 311 • cone of depression • artesian • yield • mining

  10. groundwater-surface water interaction • gaining and losing streams - fig p 310, 315 • springs • karst • sinkholes • disappearing streams

  11. Water supply • Water budget • Input (rain\run on • output • runoff • withdrawal • subsurface flow • evaporation • transpiration • flood vs drought

  12. in-stream use • surface water • types - graph p 320 • navigation • power • habitat • recreation

  13. off-stream • GW and surface • consumptive and sewage • types • agricultural • residential - (inc. drinking) • industrial & commercial • municipal • out of basin

  14. use trends - fig p 322 • agriculture - #1 (decreasing) • electric power generation - #2 (decreasing) • residential (increasing) • commercial & industrial (decreasing)

  15. water management • supply vs demand • volume over time • overdraft - fig p 313 • develop supplies • wells • reservoirs • aquaducts - fig p 320 • reallocation of use • conservation • increase efficiency of use • recycling • reuse of waste water

  16. surface water rights • riparian • adjacent landowner • goes with property • east of Miss • prior appropriation • volume per year • separate from other property rights • west of Miss

  17. groundwater rights • absolute ownership (pump at will) • reasonable use • correlative rights • all owners = • safe yield is divided • prior appropriation

  18. Chapter 11: Water Pollution

  19. Water pollution • Degradation of water quality • biological • chemical • physical

  20. Pollutants • Biochemical oxygen demand • mg/1 of O2 consumed over 5 days at 20degrees C • agricultural runoff - nutrient • sewage • pathogenic organisms • human disease - cholera and typhoid • Fecal coliform bacteria • threshold 200 cells/100 ml water

  21. Pollutants • nutrients • phosphorous • nitrogen (blue baby syndrome) • oil • toxic substances • hazardous chemicals • organics • pesticides • PCB’s & dioxins • heavy metals • radioactive material • sediment • thermal

  22. pollutant migration • source • route • target

  23. Surface water pollution • sources • Point sources • sewage • industrial • Non-point sources • farms - nutrients & seds • mines - acid & seds • state • Dissolved - short residence time • Sediment borne - long residence time • event - long term vs single event

  24. migration routes direct washed in seepage from banks fate deposited diluted consumed evaporate effected targets water supplies environmental treatment eliminate source excavate sediment treat water Surface water pollution

  25. table p 344 point sources LUST landfills septic systems feedlots and ag injection wells non-point ag Groundwater pollution - sources

  26. groundwater pollution • Migration • route • down gradient • down hill • fate • dissolves and disperses • LNAPLS - floats • DNAPLES - sinks • vaporizes • attaches to earth materials • effected targets • wells • surface water

  27. site characterization geology and hydrology contaminates targets risk assessment isolation corrective action remove source clean (impossible?)- table p 347 GW extraction - smearing wells/trenches vapor extraction sparging bioremediation treatment beds groundwater treatment

  28. Saltwater intrusion • fig p 347 • near coast • desalinization (expensive)

  29. water quality standards • fig p 348 • set by government • science • politics

  30. Wastewater treatment • Septic tank sewage disposal • Geologic factors • type of soil composition, permeability • depth to water table and seasonal variation • depth to bed rock • topography • municipal - fig p 351 • objectives • convert organic matter to stable form • reduce volume of sludge • destroy/control harmful bugs • produce usable by-products • alternatives • wetland • renovation - fig p 353

  31. Chapter 12: Mineral Resources

  32. Unique characteristics of mineral resources • non-renewable (on human scale • produced by very slow processes • easily depleted • often occur in small localized bodies • easy to find and exploit • hard to find and exploit • Geographic location - not evenly distributed

  33. Uses of mineral resources • table p 359 • metal production - abundant and scarce • building materials • chemical industry • agriculture • necessary for life (ie. NaCl)

  34. Resources and reserves • fig p 361 • potentially useful materials • identified • useable • legally retrievable • economically viable • decreasing supplies º increased value º improves economic viability

  35. Consumption • fig p 362 • rapid • slower • with conservation • with recycling

  36. Geology of Mineral Resources • ore - economically useful concentration of metallic minerals • concentration factors - table p 365 • examples - table p 365

  37. Igneous processes • kimberlite - fig p 366 • layered intrusions • pegmatites - late stage solutions • hydrothermal - fig p 366 • dissolves minerals & moves them to a new location • veins • cavity filling • replacement

  38. Metamorphism • contact - fig p 366 • regional

  39. effect of plate tectonics • p 370-371

  40. Sedimentary processes • sand and gravel deposits • ore and mineral deposits • placers - streams and beaches - fig p 368 • evaporates - fig p 367 • salt domes • gypsum • CaCO2 • brines • banded iron deposits

  41. Biological processes • calcium shells • phosphate • bones • guano

  42. Weathering - fig p 369 • residual minerals from rock body (ie bauxite • residual ore deposit • secondary enrichment of ore bodies

  43. From Sea • Sea water • salts • magnesium • Deep ocean floor • ocean ridges • black smokers • sulfides • manganese oxide nodules • Mn 24%, Fe 14%, Cu 1%, Ni 1%, Co 25% • mm to cm in diameter • 1 to 5mm/million yrs

  44. Environmental impact • exploration - small • development – large • mining effects • refining • slag - refining waste

  45. mining effects • surface vs underground • topographic changes • aesthetic • sediment • groundwater and surface water pollution • leachate & acid runoff • air quality • biological • social impact • rapid influx of workers • demand on local resources • closure

  46. restoration & reclamation • env regulations • biotechnology • bioleaching • water treatment - fig p 378 • return site to near original state if possible • high volume extraction - difficult to reclaim • may send slag back to mine • new use for site • landfill • recreation

  47. Recycling • reuse of mined materials • extends life of resource

  48. Chapter 13: Energy Resources

  49. energy consumption • U.S. - fig p 385

  50. Coal • coal forming process - fig p 387 • organic material falls into low oxygen environment • burial • Classification - fig p 387 • Lignite • Subbituminous • Bituminous • Anthracite • Sulfur content • low 0-1% • med 1-3% • high >3% • Coal Deposits - fig p 389