What is Nonverbal Communication and What Is Its Significance? • It is a form of communication which is symbolic, meaningful and governed by societal or cultural rules • Our facial expressions, eye gaze, posture and tone of voice. • It conveys status,powerand deception. • Plays an important role in intercultural interactions. • It is enables us to show how we feel about each other and our cultural groups. • The expectancy violation theory is a useful tool, to help us understand nonverbal communication across cultures.According to the theory we have expectations of how other people should behave or communicate nonverbally in specific situations. These expectations are on a subconscious level.
The Difference Between Verbal and Nonverbal Communication Verbal Communication: • People use actual words to speak. • It is predominantly initiated on a conscious level. • Also includes sign language and written forms of communication. • The rate, volume, pitch, the articulation and pronunciation of words.
Nonverbal Communication: • Does not use words. • Operated on a subconscious and conscious level • Eye contact • Facial expressions • Silences and pauses • Hand gestures • Body positioning • Body distance • Touch • Sounds
Examples Of Nonverbal Communication In My Culture • In my family we do make eye contact with our elders, we look at the ground or elsewhere when we communicate. • As a woman I cannot shake hands with the opposite sex, it is considered a sign of disrespect or forwardness in my culture. • A hand laid across your heart is a sign of peace when we are introduced to someone.
QUIZ 1.) Nonverbal communication involves all of the following except: A Use of words B Gestures C Facial expressions D Eye contact 2.) __________ and humans share nonverbal behaviors A Giraffes B Rats C Chimpanzees D Goats 3.) Verbal communication predominantly operates on a _________ level. A Conscious B Subconscious C Meditative D Spiritual
4.) ____________ communication plays a vital role in intercultural communication. A Verbal B Nonverbal C Oral D Tele 5.) Nonverbal communication can convey, status, power and __________. A Education B Health C Deception D Intelligence
True or False 6.) There are no differences between Verbal and Nonverbal communication. T/F ? False 7.) Nonverbal communication enables us to show how we feel about each other and our cultural groups. T/F ? True 8.) The expectancy violation theory is a useful tool to determine how we react to nonverbal cues from other people. T/F? False 9.) Nonverbal communication is not governed by rules. T/F? False 10.) Verbal communication also involves the rate, pitch, volume and articulation of words. T/F? True
RESEARCH Automated Face Analysis – In depth review, experiments and research on human facial expressions which is the way most human beings express their emotions nonverbally. http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~face/index2.htm By the Robotics Institute, Carnegie Mellon University. Journal articles on facial expressions: Agneta H. Fischer & Anthony S. R. Manstead (2000). “The relation between gender and emotions in different cultures.” Pp. 71 - 94 i A. H. Fischer (ed.): Gender and emotion: social psychological perspectives. Cambridge University Press Cohn, J. F. & Schmidt, K. L. (2004). “The timing of facial motion in posed and spontaneous smiles”. International Journal of Wavelets, Multi -resolution and Information Processing, 2, 1-12. Mehrabian, Albert & Susan R. Ferris (1967). ”Inference of attitudes from nonverbal communication in two channels.” Journal of consulting psychology 31 (3): 248-252.
Nonverbal Communication Skills– A website which gives an extensive breakdown of nonverbal communication, tips on how to be a better communicator, lists nonverbal cues which may be misinterpreted or missed and shows us how to evaluate our nonverbal skills. http://www.helpguide.org/mental/eq6_nonverbal_communication.htm Journal articles on nonverbal communication skills: Friedman, Howard S.; Miller-Herringer, Terry. “Nonverbal display of emotion in public and in private: Self-monitoring, personality, and expressive cues”. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 1992 Nov, v61 (n5):766-775 Riggio, Ronald E.; Widaman, Keith F.; Friedman, Howard S. “Actual and perceived emotional sending and personality correlates” . Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 1985 Summer, v9 (n2):69-83.