NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION • Accounts for 80% of all Communication • Nonverbal is body language • Nonverbal messages often overpower verbal messages • Body language is not a universal language
NONVERBAL BEHAVIORS • Posture and body orientation • Eye contact • Facial expressions • Gestures • Touch • Personal Space/proximity • Paralinguistics/tone of voice
POSTURE AND BODY ORIENTATION • Communicate by the way we walk, talk, stand and sit • Lean forward slightly to show interest Open Posture – tilt head, lean forward, and if seated, uncross legs Closed Posture – head and trunk straight, arms folded, and if seated, legs crossed
EYE CONTACT • Helps regulate flow of communication • Use a fairly steady gaze • Signals an interest in others • Increases speaker’s credibility
FACIAL EXPRESSIONS • Smiling is a powerful cue that transmits • Happiness • Friendliness • Warmth • Liking • Affiliation
GESTURES • Humans can do more than 5000 different gestures • People who give feedback (head nods and gestures) appear to be more interested • Quick nods help a speaker • Long nods distract a speaker • Double nods cause a speaker to speak faster
WATCH FOR THESE • People who are lying tend to use fewer gestures, touch their faces more often and shift position more frequently. • The face is part of the body that can be most easily controlled and therefore disguised.
TOUCH • Signs of greeting differ by culture • Handshakes • Hugs • Bows • Some cultures are more comfortable with touching than others • Some people do not like to be touched
PERSONAL SPACE/PROXIMITY • Intimate = < 18 inches This distance is primarily for confidential exchanges and is usually reserved for close friends • Personal = 1 ½ to 4 ft. This distance is comfortable for conversation between friends
PERSONAL SPACE • Social = 4 to 12 feet This is the ordinary distance people maintain from one another for most social and business exchanges • Public = Over 12 feet At this distance, perhaps in a shopping mall or on the street, people barely acknowledge each other’s presence. At most they give a nod or a shake of the head.
PARALINGUISTICS/TONE OF VOICE Includes vocal elements that should be varied: • Tone • Pitch • Rhythm • Timbre • Loudness • Inflection