OBJECTIVES • Define the term non-verbal communication and its concepts • Explain the nature of non-verbal behaviors • Illustrate non-verbal behaviors • Differentiate the three primary elements of non-verbal communication • Identify categories/dimensions of non-verbal behaviors • Synthesize the universal elements of non-verbal communication
Nonverbal Communication • “Nonverbal communication is the transfer of meaningful information from one person to another by means other than written or spoken language.” Vaughan & Hogg (1998)
Categories of Nonverbal Communication • Sign language – includes all those codes in which numbers, words, and punctuation signs have been supplanted or replaced by gestures • Action language – encompasses all movements that are not used exclusively as signals. • Object language – embraces all intentional and non-intentional display of material things, such as art objects, implements, machines, architectural structures, and the human body and whatever clothes it.
DIMENSIONS of NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION • Body motion or kinesics • Physical characteristics • Touching behavior or haptics • Paralanguage • Proxemics • Artifacts • Environmental factors Knapp (1972)
DIMENSIONS of NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION • Body communication * gestural communication * facial communication * eye communication * touch communication • Space communication * Proxemics * Territoriality * Aesthetics and colors • Silence, paralanguage, and temporal communication * silence * paralanguage * time Joseph de Vito (1986)
Principles of Nonverbal Messages • Nonverbal communication, like verbal communication, is contextual. • Nonverbal behaviors are wholes not parts or segments. • Nonverbal behaviors always communicate. • Nonverbal communication follows certain rules. • Nonverbal communication is motivated. • Nonverbal communication is more credible than verbal behavior. • Nonverbal communication often refers to other communications.
Categories of Nonverbal Communication 1. Body Motion or Kinesic Behavior (moving/dynamic) a) Emblems - nonverbal acts which correspond to a direct verbal translation or dictionary definition b) Illustrators – nonverbal acts that accompany speech c) Affect Displays – verbal affective statements or messages can be repeated d) Regulators – head nods and eye movements e) Adaptors – most difficult to define because we are generally unaware of it 2. Physical Characteristics (non-moving or static) 3. Touching Behavior (Haptics)
Categories of Nonverbal Communication 4. Paralanguage a) Voice qualities – pitch range, pitch control, rhythm, control, tempo, articulation control, resonance, glottis control, vocal lip control b) Vocalizations – vocal characterizers, vocal qualifiers, vocal segregates 5. Proxemics 6. Artifacts 7. Environmental factors
“Public distance” – Edward T. Hall • Classification of interhuman distance according to Gronbeck et al. (1994) a) Intimate distance ranges from up to 1 ½ feet b) Personal distance – ranges from 1 ½ to 4 feet c) Social distance – ranges from 4 to 12 feet d) Public distance – ranges from 12 feet up
Functions of Nonverbal Communication • Repeating • Contradicting • Substituting • Complementing • Accenting • Relating and Regulating