1. SpanishSuccessionWar (1700-1714) Spanishsuccessionwar
1.1. Spanishsuccessionwar • In1700 Charles II, last of theSpanishking of theHouse of Hababurg, diedleaving no heirbequeathinhispossessionsto Philip d'Anjou, grandson of King of France. • Such a Franco-SpanishunificationwouldhavedrasticallychangedtheEuropean balance of power so Great Britain, Austria and Prussiasupportedthecandidate of theHousen of Hasburg, Archduk Charles.
1.2. Peace of Utrecht • ThePeace of Utrecht markstheend of theconflict and theestablishment of the Bourbon dynasty in Spain. • Theclauses of theTreaty: • Philip wasrecognized as King of Spainhowever, he wasforcedtorenounceanyrighttotheFrenchthrone. • Spain ceded Gibraltar and Minorcato GB. • SpainlosttheEuropeanterritories.
2.1. Thechanges in thedemographiccycle • Europeanpopulationgrewveryslowlythroughoutthemodernhistory and evendropped in moments of specialmortalityrates. • In the 18th century new factorsturnedthetide: • A period of peace and stability. • Theintroduction of new foodlikepotato and corn. • New medicaladvances and hygienic and sanitaryimprovements.
Thesefactorscaused a deepdrop in mortality, whilethenumber of birthsremainedhigh. • TheDEMOGRAPHIC REVOLUTIONincreasedtowardstheend of thecentury. • Europeanpopulation: from 125 millions in 1700 to 195 millions in 1800.
2.2. Thetransformation in theagriculture • Continuedpopulationgrowthrequiredcontinuedincrease in foodproduction, so theproducerswerepressedtoincreasedtheyield. • Wetlandsweredriedout in ordertoincreasethesurface of cultivable land. • Changes in agriculturaltools: theironplowsubstitutedtheromanplow, more draughtanimalswereintroduced...
Roman plow Iron plow
Norfolk system: fourcropswererotated once a yearincreasingyields. • Substitution of communallandsbyprivatelyownedparcels, wheretheownerintroducedtheimprovementsthatwouldeventuallyincreasehisprofits.
2.3. Thechanges in handcraft and trade • Thepopulationgrowthinvolvedtheneed of producing more goods and havingthemdeliverto more people. • Themeans of transportsuch as roads and shipswereimproved. • Thedomesticsystemwastakingthe place of theoldguildsystem.
2.4. Mercantilism • Itisaneconomictheorythatholdsthattheprosperity of a nationisdependentuponitssupply of capital. • The global volume of internationaltradeisunchangeable.
Thegovernmentshouldadvancethesegoalsbyplaying a protectionist role in theeconomy (encouragingexports and discouragingimports, notablythroughthe use of tariffs and subsides). • Economicassets of a nation are representedbybullionheldbythethestate, whichisbestincreasedthrough a positive balance of tradewithothernations.
3. TheAncienRégimesociety • The feudal societycontinued tobethedominantform of social organisation in Europe. 1st ESTATE PRIVILEGED 2nd ESTATE 3rd ESTATE NON PRIVILEGED
Exemptfrompayingtaxes Live ontherentfromtheirlands, and taxesfromthepeasants. • FIRST ESTATE: nobility. 2% • SECOND ESTATE: clergy. 1% • THIRD ESTATE: • Bourgeoisie: merchants and bussinesowners (5%) • Pettirbourgeoisie: smallmerchants and craftsmen. (10%) • Thepeasantry: poorfarmers and labourers. (80%) Theypaytaxes
4.1. ABOLUTISTE MONARCHY King has unlimitedpower: • DivineRight (theywerechosenbyGod) • LimitedbyAssembly: aboutthetaxes.
4.2 ENLIGHTENED ABSOLUTISM A.K.A. ENLIGHTENED DESPOTISM* “ ALL FOR THE PEOPLE BUT WITHOUT THE PEOPLE” Charles III
5.2 ENLIGHTENED ABSOLUTISM A.K.A. ENLIGHTENED DESPOTISM InfluencebyEnlightenment: • allowthereligiuostolerance and freedom off speech. • undertakeagrarian and economicreforms. • impeltheconstruction of schools and universities.
5.3. PARLIAMENTARY MONARCHY TheEnglishparlamentarism: • Isamongthemostancientassemblies. • Has beenthemostinfluential in development of modernstate.
English Civil War (1642-1649) • Parlamentarians vs. Royalist • King Charles I wasexecuted
Bill of Rights (1689) • Theend of theGloriousRevolution: • Parlament´srighttomakelaws and levytaxes. • Nationalsovereignty*: theend of theDivineRight.
6. THE ENLIGHTENMENT* • It was a cultural movement of intellectuals beginning in the late 17th and 18th century Europe emphasizing reason and individualism rather than tradition.
Mainpriciples of Enlightenment: • REASON becamesacred: thesource of anyknowledge. • EDUCATION as a mean of getthehumanprogress. • Belif in theconstant PROGRESS of thehumankind. • EQUALITY and LIBERTY are elementes of a enlightenesociety.
6.1. John Locke (1632-1704) • Father of theClassiclLiberalism. • AgainsttheAbsolutism. • Defends: • Right of rebelionagainstthetyranny • Separation of powers: legislative and executive.
Each individual isperfectequalwitheveryother, and allhaveabsolutelibertytoact as theywill, whitoutinterference of anyone. • Limit: theliberty of theothers. • TheLeviathan.
6.3. Encyclopaedia • Createdby DIDEROT and D´ALAMBERT. • Compilation of theknowledge of thehumankind.
6.4. Voltaire (1694-1778) • Criticizes: • TheAncienRegime • TheChurch • Defendsthe ideas of: • Tolerance • Liberty • Individualprogress
6.5. Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) “Manisnaturallygood, butthesocietycorrupteshim”
We are allequalstoeachother • The SOCIAL CONTRACT isonethateverybody subscribes willingtolimithisownfreedom • Rousseau distinguisedbetween GENERAL WILL fromthe INDIVIDUAL WILL. The General Willis a moral will, thataims at thecommongood.
6.6. Montesquieu • Concivedthe DIVISION OF POWERS* to: • Preventtheconcentration in fewhands. • Obtain: checkeachother. • Powers: executive; legislative and judicial