Citations Mrs. French Research paper
Citation or Documentation • No citations in the introduction (Nothing from a note card) • If it is a well-known fact (Kennedy assassination) you can use it and not document it • If it is not a well-known fact, you must document, so cannot be used in the introduction • Same for conclusion • Exception—something that really helps wrap it up; rare • These rules are on a PARAGRAPH by PARAGRAPH basis • Cards • Cards are in order with your outline • As you write from card, BE AWARE of what is coming • (CONTENT AND SOURCE) • Look at card • Paraphrase if quoted • Write in a sentence, KNOWING WHAT IS COMING NEXT
RULE 1- Same source, same page • After each sentence you write, look to see if the source and pg # has changed • If not, keep writing • Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx. Xx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx. Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx. Xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx. Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx (Smith 5). • If all sentences came from Smith and were on the SAME page, document at the end of the paragraph. • NOTE: • Last name page # (no comma) • What if there is no author? • Where is the period? • Where are quotation marks if quoted?
Next paragraph- RULE STARTS OVER FOR EACH PARAGRAPH Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx. Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx. Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx. Xxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx. Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx (Smith 5). If it is all from Smith again and all from the same page, cite it (Smith 5). This will continue as long as it is from page 5 of Smith.
Same source, anotherpage Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx. Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx. Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx. Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx(Smith 10). This time the sentences you wrote came from cards taken on page 10, so cite (Smith 10). Maybe the next paragraph is all from page 10 of Smith. How do you cite? (Smith 10)
RULE 2- Same source, different pages (within the paragraph) Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx(Smith 5). Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx(10). Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx(22). Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx(18). Once you have established Smith as your source, you do not need to repeat his name if just the page # changes. If you go to a new paragraph, the rules starts over and you must again establish the source. Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx(Smith 12). Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx(8). Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx (15). Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx (22).
RULE 3- Different sources within the paragraph • Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx(Smith 14). Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx(Jones 3). Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx(14). Xxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx (Smith 16). Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx(8). Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx (Jones 4). • REMEMBER: • You must re-establish the source when it changes • Next Paragraph: Rules start over. Re-establish source. • Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx(Smith 28). Xxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx(21). Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx(Jones 30). Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx(14). Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx (Smith 6).
Same information from two different sources • Pick one source and use it. Choose the card that will help balance your sources throughout your paper. • Cite both. Good choice for very important information. • Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx (Smith 5; Jones 13). • NOTE: • Use a semicolon between sources
If you combine information from two different sources to make one sentence • Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx (Smith 8; Jones 12). • Smith 8 is the first part of the sentence and Jones 12 is the second part. • Yes, these look alike. It’s just how it’s done.
After a citation with two different sources,you must re-establish your source Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx (Smith 3; Jones 10). Xxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx(Smith 5). X xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx (17). Once the source has been re-established, just use the page #.
If you combine information from two pagesof the same source into one sentence • Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx (Smith 3; 10). • NOTICE: • Use a semicolon
REMEMBER • You are using transitional sentences. Do not put a citation after your own transitional sentence. • If the sentence is at the opening of the paragraph, just cite at the end as normal. • If the transitional sentence is at the END of the paragraph, cite AFTER the last documented sentence, not after your sentence. • NOTE: • As you write, keep your eye on the next card for source and page #
REMEMBER • The citation is BEFORE the period. Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx (Smith 3). • Quotation marks are before the citation. “Xxxxxxxx” (Smith 32). • Nothing between author and page # (Smith 3). • NEVER USE “pg.” • No author? Use first word of the title. • “Titanic” • quotes if an article • Titanic • underline if a book • Proper heading and title • Header • Times New Roman • 12 point font • 3-5 pages in length
WITH YOUR FINAL PAPER, TURN IN • Your outline • with changes • Your notecards • IN ORDER YOU USED THEM • Your handwritten draft • Your typed draft • with revisions • Put your FINAL DRAFT on top