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  1. Citations: Bibliography Works Cited Page In-Text Citations

  2. Bibliography • This is an outdated term. Simply put, “bibli” means book, and “ography” means written. • Bibliography means a list of books or other sources. • We use the term “Works Cited” to mean a list or resources and to give credit for using that source.

  3. Working Bibliography • When you are gathering resources and looking through ANYTHING, do yourself a favor and get as much information about that source as possible right away, whether you are sure that you will be using it or not. You can always discard that info later. • An incomplete list of potential resources while you are still working on the paper is considered a “Working Bibliography.”

  4. Works Cited • To “cite” means to give credit for. • A “work” is any kind of resource, typically something produced, as opposed to an interview, but it is all-inclusive! • Therefore, any source that you have used in your research should appear on your Works Cited Page in correct format.

  5. General Rules for Citations: • For books: • Fleming, Thomas. Liberty!: The American Revolution. New York: Viking, 1997. Print. • Last name, First. Title, City of publication: Publisher, Yr. Print. • For Journals: • Evnine, Simon J. "The Universality of Logic: On the Connection between Rationality and Logical Ability.” Mind 110.438 (2001): n.pag. Web. 31 July 2001. • Last Name, First. “Title.” Journal Name volume.issue (yr): page or paragraph numbers. Web. Date accessed. • (n.pag. means “no pagination”; the journal had no page numbers)

  6. General Rules for Citations: • Web Page: • Abraham Lincoln Birthplace National Historic Site. National Park Service, 11 Feb. 2003. Web. 13 Feb. 2003. • Author’s last name (if given), Title of work. Group responsible for the site (if applicable), Date site was updated. Web. Date accessed. URL address.

  7. Oh yeah… • Of course, citations should be listed alphabetically. • A one-to-one correspondence must exist between works cited in the text and works listed on the works cited page! • In other words, if it is listed as being used (on your works cited page) it had better show up somewhere in your text as well…

  8. In-Text Citations:(Parenthetical Citations) • These are very simple!!! • Within parentheses, put the author’s last name, a space, and a page number. • Put the punctuation, a period, after the parentheses! • Example: • (Smith 27).

  9. Rules: • Put the parenthetical reference right after the passage for which you are giving credit. It implies that anything after that is your own idea. • If there is no author, choose a way to uniquely identify the source. It must correspond at first glance to its works cited entry!

  10. Once you have identified a work or an author and you are citing it as a source again, you have to put only the page reference, as long as it is appearing consecutively. • If you have identified the source or author in the text of your paper, you need refer only to the page number within the parentheses.

  11. When the source has no known author: • use a shortened title of the work instead of an author name. Place the title in quotation marks if it's a short work (e.g. articles) or italicize it if it's a longer work (e.g. plays, books, television shows, entire websites) and provide a page number. • Ex: “The glaciers are melting at a geometric rate” (“Global Warming Impacts” 6).

  12. Other than that: • There are many more types of sources, and each type has its own way of citing. If you have something unusual, see your instructor for further clarification. I have additional resources and can help find the correct format.