90 likes | 202 Vues
The meanings of words. Kuiper and Allan Chapter 3.1. Sameness of meaning (synonymy). imposter , n. One who assumes a false character or personality; swindler. Synonymy. Synonymy and entailment. e.g. If John drives a car then it follows that John drives an automobile.
E N D
The meanings of words Kuiper and Allan Chapter 3.1
Sameness of meaning (synonymy) • imposter, n. One who assumes a false character or personality; swindler.
Synonymy and entailment • e.g. If John drives a car then it follows that John drives an automobile. • i.e. That John drives a car entails that John drives an automobile and the reverse entailment also holds.
Multiple meanings (polysemy) • One lexeme can have a number of related meanings. • e.g. Jerry regained his sight. • The Southern Alps are a magnificent sight.
Polysemy Meanings are related
Accidental similarity of form (homonymy) • Two lexemes can accidentally have the same form • e.g. sight & site • Homonyms do not have related meanings.
Homonymy Accidental similarity
Exercise • Are the senses of the underlined words related, i.e. is there one word with polysemous senses, or are these homonyms? a. The ship was listing badly. We are listing the requirements for the course. b. He gave her a diamond ring. His glass left a ring on the table. c. They came to a fork in the road. He placed the fork beside the knife on the plate. d. The dog tried to lap the water. The cat sat in my lap.