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UNIT 5 GUESSING MEANINGS OF UNKNOWN WORDS. Objectives: to guess the meaning of unknown words from context to find the meaning of a word by using a dictionary. 1. Guessing meaning from context / context clues. a. Guessing meaning from context clues / structural clues
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UNIT 5GUESSING MEANINGS OF UNKNOWN WORDS Objectives: • to guess the meaning of unknown words from context • to find the meaning of a word by using a dictionary
1. Guessing meaning from context / context clues a. Guessing meaning from context clues / structural clues b. Guessing meaning from synonyms & antonyms c. Guessing meaning from prefixes, suffixes, word stems
A context is a sentence, paragraph, or longer unit of writing that surrounds a word. The context sometimes provides structural clues. For example: • A definition: be, that is, etc. e.g. Graphology is the study and analysis of handwriting for the purpose of interpreting character and personality. • Punctuations: comma, dashes (-), brackets, quotation marks. e.g. Natural medicine became hugely popular, especially acupuncture (an ancient Chinese method of anesthetizing by sticking pins into points in the nervous system). • Words showing similarities: in other words, for example, etc, e.g. Many prominent universities, such as IPB and ITB can produce qualified human resources. • Appositives, or more explanation, examples, etc. e.g. In a remarkable documentary, Wings of Hope, German Director Werner Herzog recounts the true story of an eighteen year old girl.
Sample passage (using context clues or structural clues) Two Italian psychologists, Vincenzo Marte and Giovanni Notarnicola, describe the traditional spontaneous practice of sport by children – climbing trees, riding a bicycle along quiet roads, racing their friends across the field – as an activity of freedom, a special activity of discovery and learning. In the case of free sporting activity, the child’s time is given up entirely to the activity, as can be seen in the endless games of football young children play, which may then be followed by bicycle races and/or a swim in the river, for example.
Sample passage (using synonyms or antonyms) A first reason for the imbalance in the practice of sport by children is therefore, linked to the urban society we live in today. We need not regret the past; it is rather a question of knowing how to recreate this freedom in our towns and in the country, where sport is increasingly based on organized leisure activities. Doing one sport is now the rule in clubs. Sports grounds are often on the outskirts of cities, and are overcrowdedand invariably enclosed, while recreational areas, such as parks or hard-parkedsurfaces, are very few and far between. How can we find the balanceof a varied and spontaneous relationship to sport under such conditions?
Sample passage (using prefixes, suffixes, word stems) For example, report is formed from re, which means back, and port which means carry. Scientist is derived from sci, which means know, and ist, which means one who. Port and sci are called stems. A stem is the basic part on which groups of related words are built. Re and ist are called affixes, that is word parts which are attached to stems. Affixes like re, which are attached to the beginning of stems are called prefixes. Affixes attached to the end, like ist, are called suffixes.
2. Finding the meaning of a word based on the part of speech and a dictionary 2.1.The Part of Speech • He tried to answer the question. (verb) • It is difficult to find an answer to the problem. (noun) Verb Noun Cause Change Dream Drink Edge Glow Mark Cause Change Dream Drink Edge Glow Mark
Exercise:Identify the part of speechof each word in purple, and then write the related words. An undergraduate student of this university who has senior status and is within ten credit hours of completing all requirements for graduation may register for graduate work with the recommendation of the chairperson of the department and the approval of the Dean of the Graduate School.
2. 2. Using the Dictionary A dictionary will tell you the part of speech a word can be, usually with these abbreviations: n. = noun, v. = verb, adj. = adjective, adv. = adverb, pre. = preposition, conj. = conjunction.
ExerciseRead this dictionary entry and answer the questions about it. coach /kəutʃ/ n 1. teacher esp one who gives private lessons to prepare students for a public examination; 2. person who trains athletes for contests: a baseball ~. vt, vi teach or train: ~ sb for an exam; ~ the crew for the boat race. Questions • How many parts of speech does the word ‘coach’ have? • Which definition (noun or verb) of ‘coach’ means ‘a person who trains athletes’? • As a noun how many meanings does the word ‘coach’ have? • What is the other definition of the word?