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Nationalism in Europe

Nationalism in Europe

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Nationalism in Europe

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  1. Nationalism in Europe World History 1750-Present

  2. Nationalism in Europe Unification of Italy

  3. Unification in Italy • Prior to the 1800s, the Italian peninsula was a group of small states – there was NO country of Italy • Nationalism was spreading in Europe – even in the Italian peninsula

  4. Unification of Italy • The nationalist movement in Italy was known as risorgimento • Risorgimento: Italian for resurgence

  5. Unification of Italy • Open revolts took place in 1848 and 1849 • Neither were successful

  6. Unification of Italy • The only independent Italian state was Sardinia • Sardinia was officially ruled by King Victor Immanuel II, but most of the governing was performed by his chief minister, Camillo Benso di Cavour

  7. Unification of Italy • Cavour wanted to end Austrian influence in the Italian peninsula • During this time, Napoleon III was still in charge of France

  8. Unification of Italy • Napoleon III believed that he could remove Austria from the Italian peninsula and France would dominate the area • Napoleon III told Cavour that if Austria attacked Sardinia, he would have an excuse to declare war

  9. Unification of Italy • In 1859, Cavour began a military buildup, which Austria saw as a threat • Austria declared war on Sardinia, just as Cavour had planned

  10. Unification of Italy • French and Italian forces drove out Austrian forces in many Italian states • Sardinia assumed that these newly liberated states would become a part of its kingdom

  11. Unification of Italy • Instead, many Italian states banded together against Sardinia as well • Napoleon III did not like these developments and was also afraid that Prussia would join on the side of Austria

  12. Unification of Italy • Napoleon III signed an armistice with Austria that gave some Italian land back to Austria and gave France some of Austria’s former Italian lands • Sardinia was given control of Lombardy, only one Italian state

  13. Unification of Italy • Many of the other Italian states saw this as a betrayal by France and feared another European power dominating in the region • Many of the Italian states that had been silent began to revolt and join Sardinia

  14. Nationalism in Europe Unification of Italy: Garibaldi

  15. Unification of Italy: Garibaldi • Giuseppe Garibaldi led Italian nationalists in southern Italy • He recruited an army of more than 1000 soldiers

  16. Garibaldi

  17. Unification of Italy: Garibaldi • In the spring of 1860, Garibaldi and the “Expedition of the Thousand” invaded and captured Sicily • Garibaldi’s forces were also known as the Red Shirts

  18. Garibaldi • What is the artistic style of the painting?

  19. Unification of Italy: Garibaldi • Garibaldi began moving north towards Rome and the Papal States • Cavour was afraid that Garibaldi would dethrone King Immanuel II • Dethrone: to remove a king or queen from power

  20. Unification of Italy: Garibaldi • Cavour sent the army of Sardinia to stop Garibaldi • In the process, Sardinia annexed most of the Papal States

  21. Unification of Italy: Garibaldi • In the fall of 1860, Garibaldi and King Immanuel II met • Garibaldi promised to support the establishment of the kingdom of Italy

  22. Unification of Italy: Garibaldi • Garibaldi only asked to be the governor of Naples • Immanuel feared Garibaldi’s popularity and refused

  23. Unification of Italy: Garibaldi • During 1860, every state in Italy, except Venetia and Rome, united with Sardinia to form the kingdom of Italy • In 1861, these same states confirmed Victor Immanuel as king of Italy

  24. Nationalism in Europe Unification of Italy: Kingdom

  25. Unification of Italy: Kingdom • In 1866, Italy and Austria went to war against one another • Italy won and gained Venetia from Austria

  26. Unification of Italy: Kingdom • In 1870, the citizens of Rome voted for union with Italy • In 1871, Rome was proclaimed the capital of Italy

  27. Unification of Italy: Kingdom • Although united, Italy still faced many problems • There were many economic and cultural differences that had to be overcome • Most Italians had a low standard of living

  28. Unification of Italy: Kingdom • Italy attempted to build a colonial empire • Italy engaged in several military ventures in Africa in the 1880s • In 1912, Italy conquered Libya and made it a colony

  29. Nationalism in Europe Unification of Germany

  30. Unification of Germany • In 1815, the Congress of Vienna had created the German Confederation • In the late 1800s, Prussia began pushing for German unification

  31. Unification of Germany • Prussia and Austria had vied for influence in the German states • Most of the German states favored Prussia over Austria

  32. Unification of Germany • Almost all Prussian citizens were German • Austria contained citizens from many different descents

  33. Unification of Germany • The economies of the states within the German Confederation were very poor • In 1834, the German states agreed to treaties that resulted in a customs union called Zollverein

  34. Unification of Germany • The Zollverein worked with all the German states • The Zollverein made prices lower and more uniform

  35. Unification of Germany • The Zollverein moved the German economy towards unification, but politically, the states were still divided • In 1861, William I became the king of Prussia

  36. Unification of Germany • William I appointed Otto von Bismarck to the head of the Prussian cabinet • Bismarck wanted to create an even stronger Prussia army

  37. Unification of Germany • Most of the Prussian parliament did not want to increase spending on the military • Bismarck ignored the votes of the parliament and began building up the military

  38. Nationalism in Europe Unification of Germany: Danish War

  39. Unification of Germany: Danish War • Two of the German states, Schleswig and Holstein, were controlled by Denmark • Denmark tried to annex the two states

  40. Unification of Germany: Danish War • Prussia and Austria both protested the annex • Denmark refused Prussia and Austria’s demands

  41. Unification of Germany: Danish War • Prussia and Austria declared war on Denmark • After only three months of fighting, Denmark surrendered

  42. Unification of Germany: Danish War • In the agreement, Prussia was given control of Schleswig and Austria was given control of Holstein • Prussia and Austria argued bitterly over the agreement (both wanted total control)

  43. Nationalism in Europe Unification of Germany: The Seven Week’s War

  44. Unification of Germany: The Seven Week’s War • Bismarck wanted to end Austrian influence in the area and decided to go to war • In 1866, Bismarck first persuaded Napoleon III of France to remain neutral

  45. Unification of Germany: The Seven Week’s War • Bismarck then formed an alliance with Italy • Bismarck then provoked Austria into declaring war on Prussia over the disputed German states

  46. Unification of Germany: The Seven Week’s War • Prussia had adapted the advances of the Industrial Revolution into its military strategy • Prussia moved soldiers by train, communicated by telegraph, and used modern weaponry

  47. Unification of Germany: The Seven Week’s War • The once-powerful Austrians were defeated in only seven weeks • The Treaty of Prague ended the Seven Weeks War in 1866

  48. Unification of Germany: The Seven Week’s War • Under the Treaty of Prague, Prussia received control over Holstein and Italy received control of Venetia • Most of the northern German states formed a coalition with Prussia – the Northern German Confederation

  49. Nationalism in Europe German Unification: Franco-Prussian War

  50. Unification of Germany: The Franco-Prussian War • Bismarck wanted to complete the unification of Germany • In 1870, Bismarck received a telegram from William I discussing France