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  1. Powerpoint presentations • Nov 21st, Nov 28th, Dec 5th Dec 12th • Everyone who is presenting that day is needed for the full session. • Running order will be randomised and revealed in the session. Richard Kamm - University of Bath

  2. The Internet, the World Wide Web & HTML MN10004 Personal Computing

  3. Summary • The Internet and World Wide Web • Web Sites • Internet • Intranet • Extranet • Authoring Web Pages / HTML • Background • Authoring Richard Kamm - University of Bath

  4. The Internet • What is the Internet? • A global network of networks • Based on the Internet Protocol (IP) • Any network can join the Internet Includes research, academic, community & commercial networks Richard Kamm - University of Bath

  5. The Internet • Connects over a hundred thousand networks from nearly 200 countries • c10 million computers • c.580 million users (May 2002) • an elastic and robust network – no single centre • www is not the only resource on the Internet • See John Naughton, A Brief History of the Future for historical background. Richard Kamm - University of Bath

  6. What’s so special about the Internet? • Developed for information and project sharing (academic ethos). • Original intention – to allow different machines to understand each other. • Excellent for broadcasting data and linking machines: less reliable for security. Richard Kamm - University of Bath

  7. Information Resources • Many subjects and formats available • Documents • Graphics, video & audio • Software (free & shareware) • Newspapers • Directories • Library catalogues & databases • Books & journals • Junk Richard Kamm - University of Bath

  8. Terminology • WWW - World Wide Web Distributed multimedia hypertext system • HTML - HyperText Markup Language Native language for documents on the WWW • HTTP - HyperText Transfer Protocol Set of rules for communication between client & server • URL - Uniform Resource Locator Address of an object on the Internet Richard Kamm - University of Bath

  9. Locating Internet Resources • Uniform Resource Locator (URL) Standard address format for Internet resources URL indicates: • Method of access • Location For example: • http://www.bath.ac.uk • ftp://ftp.microsoft.com • Beyond the main domain name, resources are ordered in folders • http://www.bath.ac.uk/~mnsrmk/MN10004/.... Richard Kamm - University of Bath

  10. Your own web pages will be located: • In a public_html folder • At Bath, your public_html folder will be on the H: drive. • Subfolders can be put into public_html. • Pages and folders can have different levels of access permissions. • Follow BUCS instructions for setting up a home page – you can then substitute any design of page for the home page that’s created. Richard Kamm - University of Bath

  11. World Wide Web • World Wide Web (WWW or Web) • Distributed multimedia hypertext system • Provides access to Internet resources, including Usenet & FTP as well as Web resources • Uses client/server architecture Clients known as browsers - Internet Explorer, Netscape, Mosaic, Lynx Richard Kamm - University of Bath

  12. The World Wide Web - created to link documents held on different machines. • Developed at CERN by Tim Berners-Lee. • Employed existing ideas but employed in a new way on a vast scale. • Graphical browsers developed slightly later. Richard Kamm - University of Bath

  13. Client/Server Architecture Give me file X • WWW is based on a client/server architecture – processing at both ends Here it is Desktop Client Remote Server Request made using http A computer elsewhere on the Internet holding information Your desktop computer

  14. Web Sites

  15. Intranets, Extranets & the Internet Richard Kamm - University of Bath Source: Gartner Group

  16. Why Have a Web Site? • Public Relations • IMAGE BUILDING • To give (and get) information • CUSTOMER or PUBLIC SERVICE • To make money • SALES (E-Commerce) Richard Kamm - University of Bath

  17. A Balance... CNN Image Building Club Med Pirelli Dilbert Gartner Group CDNow Cisco Systems Sales Customer Service Travelocity Federal Express Amazon.co.uk Richard Kamm - University of Bath

  18. What is an Intranet? • Another name for the LAN/WAN using Internet technologies • More bandwidth, security and control than the Internet • Typically used for information/knowledge sharing • Also as a platform to deliver business applications Richard Kamm - University of Bath

  19. Decision support • Budgeting • Sales analysis • Communications • Publishing • Collaboration • Customers and partners • Business processes • Inventory management • Claims processing • Expense reports Scenarios

  20. Extranets • Secure interconnection of intranets across organisations • B-to-B E-Commerce • Supply Chains Richard Kamm - University of Bath

  21. Web Authoring and HTML

  22. ??ML • HTML is derived from SGML… • …as is XML • All are “markup languages” – instructions to the browser on how to display the text. Richard Kamm - University of Bath

  23. What is HTML? • HTML is the ‘presentation language’ of the WWW • HTML documents use markup tags: <H1>Introduction</H1> <IMG SRC="logo.gif" ALT="Logo"> • Although markup tags are case insensitive, be consistent<H1> or <h1> • Attribute values may be case sensitive (e.g. filenames) • Some markup tags are paired to denote the start and end of an element (<H1> and </H1>) Richard Kamm - University of Bath

  24. What’s so special about HTML? • It’s free – in all senses: • You don’t pay to write it. • You can examine other people’s code. • Web pages are only text: • Very efficient to communicate. • Images are in separate files which the HTML code refers to. Richard Kamm - University of Bath

  25. Simple HTML Elements • A simple HTML document will typically contain the following elements: • Simple tags used in most HTML documents (<HEAD>, <TITLE>, <P>) • Physical formatting tags (<B> and <I>) • Logical formatting tags (<STRONG>, <EM>, <UL> and <LI>) • Hypertext links (<A HREF="…">) Richard Kamm - University of Bath

  26. Creating HTML • HTML documents can be created using a simple text editor (e.g. Notepad) • Advantages • Cheap • Gain understanding of HTML • Total Control • Disadvantages • Easy to make mistakes • Need to understand syntax of HTML • Slow Richard Kamm - University of Bath

  27. HTML Authoring Tools • HTML authoring tools: • Provide an easy-to-use interface for creating HTML documents (e.g., MS FrontPage (Express), Netscape Composer, Macromedia Dreamweaver) • Can hide complexities of HTML language (including more complex entities such as tables) • Range from the simple and straightforward to the sophisticated and complex Richard Kamm - University of Bath

  28. MS Word - ‘Save as HTML…’ • Easy • But… • Many drawbacks • Very hard to control how your page looks on other people’s browsers. • Hard to format, eg position images, with any precision Richard Kamm - University of Bath

  29. Web Site Design • Designing a page is easy… • …designing a large web site isn’t • Need to consider organisation and navigability of the whole site as well as the usability of individual pages. • “Information Architect” a growing profession. Richard Kamm - University of Bath

  30. Assignment • Your home page – judged on • usability/navigability of the pages • Speed of loading • technical quality and technical innovation • design aesthetic • creative content Richard Kamm - University of Bath

  31. How NOT to do it…. • www.webpagesthatsuck.com Richard Kamm - University of Bath