THE PROJECT MANAGER Year 3 Project Management Dr. Margaret Nelson MI-06 Ext 3431
MODULE OUTLINE • The Project Manager • The Project Team • The Project Organisation • Various Approaches to Project Mgt • Project Mgt Tools & Techniques • Project Risk Management • Project Performance and Evaluation
LECTURE OUTLINE • PM Roles & Responsibilities • PM Skills & Attributes • Leadership • Professional Associations
WHAT IS PM? • Project management is • The application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities in order to meet stakeholder’s needs and expectations from a project (PMBOK, In Burke, 2003) • The discipline of defining and achieving targets while optimizing the use of resources (time, money, people, space, etc). Thus, it could be classified into several models: time, cost, scope, and intangibles (Wikipedia) • Involves avoiding problems. It is about tackling new ground, taking a group of people and trying to achieve some very clear objective quickly & efficiently (Reiss, 1995)
WHAT IS A PROJECT? • “A human activity that achieves a clear objective against a time scale” (Reiss, 1995) • “ A complex, non-routine, one-time effort limited by time, budget, resources and performance specifications designed to meet customer needs” (Gray & Larson, 2006) • Characteristics • One clear objective • A fixed time scale • A team of people • No practice or rehearsal • Change
Project Initiation Roles & Responsibilities Project Planning Estimating and Budgeting Managing Risk Controlling the Project Managing Quality Managing Change Reviewing the Project Project Background Defining the Project Planning the Project Implementing the Project Evaluation and Review PM ELEMENTS
PROJECT MANAGER • “the individual responsible for delivering the project” (OGC) • Single point of responsibility • Leads and manages the project team, with the authority and responsibility to run the project on a day-to-day basis • Essential that the skills and experience of the Project Manager are matched to the requirements of the project.
PROJECT MANAGER (2) • Manages temporary, non-repetitive activities and frequently acts independently of the formal organization. • Marshals resources for the project. • Is linked directly to the customer interface. • Provides direction, coordination, and integration to the project team. • Is responsible for performance and success of the project. • Must induce the right people at the right time to address the right issues and make the right decisions.
THE PM TRIANGLE • To be effective the Project Manager needs to be able to control three aspects of the project: • Delivers on time • Within budget • To the agreed quality Time Quality Cost
PROJECT ENVIRONMENT MODEL Source: Burke, R (2003)
PM ROLES • Defining Project Mission • Managing Stakeholders • Managing Resources • Physical • People • Financial • Managing the Scope • Managing Time • Managing the Supply Chain • Managing the Project Life Cycle • Managing the Process • Managing Conformance, H & S • Managing Risk and Uncertainty • Managing Project Information • Managing Performance • Project Evaluation • Audit and Review
RESPONSIBILITIES • Designing and applying an appropriate project management framework for the project (using relevant project standards) incorporating the Gateway review process if required • Managing the production of the required deliverables • Planning and monitoring the project • Resource Planning • Adopting any delegation and use of project assurance roles within agreed reporting structures • Preparing and maintaining the Project Plan (or Project Execution Plan), Stage and Exception Plans as required • Manage project risks, including the development of contingency plans • Liaison with programme management (if the project is part of a programme) and related projects to ensure that work is neither overlooked nor duplicated • Overall progress and use of resources, initiating corrective action where necessary
RESPONSIBILITIES (2) • Change control and any required configuration management • Reporting through agreed reporting lines on project progress through Highlight Reports and stage assessments • Liaison with appointed project assurance roles to assure the overall direction and integrity of the project • Adopting technical and quality strategy / • Identifying and obtain any support and advice required for the management, planning and control of the project • Managing project administration • Conducting end project evaluation to assess how well the project was managed [nb ‘post project’ is different from ‘end of project’] and preparing and end-project report • Preparing a Lessons Learned report • Preparing any follow-on action recommendations as required
DIMENSIONS McGraw Hill/Irwin (2006)
SKILLS & ATTRIBUTES • Apply standard project management approaches to the specific requirements of the project • Direct, manage and motivate the project team • Develop and maintain an agreed project plan and detailed stage plan(s) • Tailor expert knowledge to meet specific circumstances • Plan and manage the deployment of resources to meet project milestones • Physical • People • Financial
SKILLS & ATTRIBUTES (2) • Build and sustain effective communications with other roles involved in the project as required • Apply quality management principles and process. • Be able to anticipate events • Be able to re-evaluate the plan to ensure access to resources • Arrange effective interfaces between the project and base organisation • Must be able to plan, negotiate, motivate, inspire, and conclude
PROJECT MANAGERS & THE STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PROCESS • Changes in the organization’s mission and strategy • Project managers must respond to changes with appropriate decisions about future projects and adjustments to current projects. • Project managers who understand their organization’s strategy can become effective advocates of projects aligned with the firm’s mission.
ESSENTIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF A PROJECT MANAGER • Leadership - the manner and approach of providing direction, implementing plans, and motivating people. • Managerial ability (PM experience?) • Enthusiasm • Commitment • Tenacity • Interpersonal/People Skills • Motivator, communicator, facilitator and politician, inspire and command respect • Flexible • Expertise in the area of the Project?
TRAITS & SKILLS • Systems thinker • Personal integrity • Proactive • High stress tolerance • General business perspective • Good communicator • Effective time management • Skillful politician • Optimist • (Gray & Larson, 2006)
LEWIN’S LEADERSHIP STYLES • Autocratic • When the leader tells employees what they want done and how they want it done, without getting the advice of their followers • Does not include bossing people around • Participative or Democratic • Leader involves the people in the decision-making, although the process for the final decision may vary from the leader having the final say to them facilitating consensus in the group. • Laissez Faire • Minimize the leader's involvement in decision-making, and hence allowing people to make their own decisions, although they may still be responsible for the outcome
LIKERT’S LEADERSHIP STYLES • Exploitive Authoritative or Autocratic • Leader has a low concern for people and uses such methods as threats and other fear-based methods to achieve conformance • Benevolent Authoritative or Paternalistic • Leader adds concern for people to an authoritative position, a 'benevolent dictatorship' is formed • Consultative or Delegative • The upward flow of information still cautious and rose-tinted • Leader is making genuine efforts to listen carefully to ideas • Major decisions are still largely centrally made • Participative or Democratic • leader makes maximum use of participative methods, engaging people lower down the organization in decision-making
DECISION-MAKING CONTINUUM Source: Burke, R (2003)
CONSTRUCTION PROJECT LEADERSHIP • The challenge : • large and dispersed • diverse in education and organisational culture • the dynamics of the project life-cycle • Leader’s characteristics • mature • well-educated • extravert, not introvert • intuitive, not sensing • thinking, not feeling • high emotional intelligence Source: Winch, G
LEADERSHIP ATTRIBUTES • Physical vitality and stamina • Intelligence and action-oriented judgement • Eagerness to accept responsibility • Task competence • Understanding of followers and their needs • Skill in dealing with people • Need for achievement • Capacity to motivate people • Courage and resolution • Trustworthiness • Decisiveness • Self-confidence • Assertiveness • Adaptability/flexibility • John Gardner (1989) On Leadership, New York: Free Press
PROFESSIONAL AFFILIATIONS • Association of Project Management - http://www.apm.org.uk/ • Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors (RICS) – http://www.rics.org • Project Management Institute (PMI) - http://www.pmi.org.uk/index.html
READING LIST • Anderson, E., Grude, K.V. and Haug, T. (1987), Goal Directed Project Management (2nd Edition), London: Kogan Page. • Burke, R. (2003), Project Management Planning and Control Techniques, 4th Edition, Chichester, UK: John Wiley and Sons Ltd. • Gray, C. F. and Larson, E. W. (2006), Project Management: The Managerial Process, 3rd Edition, NY: McGraw Hill/Irwin. • Murray, M. and Langford, D. (2004), Architect’s Handbook of Construction Project Management, London: RIBA Enterprises. • Reiss, G. (1995), Project Management Demystified: Today’s Tools and Techniques, 2nd Edition, London: Spon Press. • Winch, G, Lecture Notes • http://www.ce.cmu.edu/pmbook/ • http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/winch/case.pdf • http://www.maxwideman.com/guests/index.htm • http://www.see.ed.ac.uk/~gerard/MENG/ME96/Documents/Styles/styles.html • http://changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/styles/likert_style.htm • http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leadstl.html
Any Questions? Tutorial 4-6.30 p.m. Next Lecture The Project Team