American Government Julia Said Petition Assignment Period 1
Articles of Confederation • The Articles of Confederation was the U.S.’s first government in the U.S. • It gave most of the power to state government and left them with a weak national government. • There were only two branches of government under the Articles: Legislative and Executive. • John Dickinson wrote the Articles of Confederation.
Articles of Confederation Powers • The Articles of Confederation Powers: • Declare war • Raise an Army and Navy • Make treaties • Each state had one vote • Make a postal system • Do business/ trading with Native people and other countries.
Articles of Confederation Problems • The Articles of Confederation Problems: • No control over state governments • No court system for states to solve their fighting • No branch of government that can carry out laws • No power to tax • No money • No way to create an Army if they cannot raise the money to make one
Shays’ Rebellion • Shays’ Rebellion took place in 1787 in Massachusetts. • It was when 2,000 farmers almost took over the state because they were not letting them take their farms. • The farmers were angry with the government because they dropped the crop prices after the farmers either just helped in the Revolutionary War, or gave their crops to the soldiers.
Shays’ Rebellion Continued • The farmers became very poor and could not pay off their farm loans, so the government started taking them away. • Daniel Shays was the leader of the rebellion. • The government couldn’t afford to pay an army so they had no way to stop it, until they got a Militia to stop them. • This proved that the government needed more power that they weren’t getting with the Articles of Confederation.
Independence Hall/Constitutional Convention • In 1787, 55 delegates from 12 states (all but Rhode Island) met at Independence Hall for the Constitutional Convention. • They convention was held in Philadelphia where it was very hot and humid- around 100 degrees.
More on the Constitutional Convention • The Constitutional Convention was held because the states wanted to make a change to the Articles of Confederation. • The men at the convention had to be white, male, and a landowner (rich). • Main men at the convention were: • George Washington- Elected chairman • Ben Franklin- Oldest (82 years) • James Madison- Best prepared and recorded everything
Constitutional Convention Continued • Debates at the convention and their results: • Should we make changes to the Articles of Confederation, or have something new? -Decision: Make something new. • How many representatives should each state get?-Decision: They compromise. (“The Great Compromise” Congress is in two groups; House of Representatives and Senate. Senate: Two delegates from each state, House of Representatives: Based on population. • Should slaves count in a states population?-Decision: The 3/5ths Compromise. Three out of every 5 slaves would be counted in the population, and slave owners had to pay taxes for their slaves.
How a Bill Becomes a Law • A bill is what a law is called before it is passed • A bill can be brought up in either part of Congress • The bill is an idea that a person sends to a member of the House or Senate and that member can either keep it, change it, or throw it out • If the bill gets a majority vote on that side of Congress, they must pass it to the other side.
How a Bill Becomes a Law Continued • If the other side of Congress doesn’t like it they can make changes to it, until they do. • The bill will then be passed back to the other side and they will keep passing it back until they come up with an agreement and they have to agree on the EXACT wording • They then, give it to the President and he can veto (get rid of) it, or he can pass it. • If he vetoes it, Congress can vote to get it back, as long as the get a 2/3 majority vote. Otherwise the bill is dead.
Today’s Branches of Government • Executive Branch: Carries out laws – President and Vice President • Legislative Branch: Makes laws • Judicial Branch: Makes sure the laws are carried out fairly- Supreme Court
Four Main Taxes • Federal Income Tax (FIT) –Based on how much money you make. • State Income Tax (Sit) –Based on how much you make. • Sales Tax –Based on how much you buy. • Property Tax –Based on the value of the land you are on and your house.
Government Cake City/Local Mayor City Council Alderman State Congress Governor Ex.) Des Moines Federal/National President Washington D.C. Congress