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American Government

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  1. American Government 100 Concepts & Final Exam Preparation Fall Semester

  2. THE 100 CONCEPTS

  3. Number 1: QUESTION: What is government? ANSWER: Institution through which a society makes and enforces its public policy

  4. Number 2: QUESTION: What is public policy? ANSWER: all of the goals a government sets and the various courses of action it pursues as it attempts to realize these goals

  5. Number 3: QUESTION: What is legislative power? ANSWER: power to make law and to frame public policies

  6. Number 4: QUESTION: What is executive power? ANSWER: power to execute, enforce, and administer law

  7. Number 5: QUESTION: What is judicial power? ANSWER: power to interpret laws, to determine their meaning, and to settle disputes that arise within the society

  8. Number 6: QUESTION: What is “the body of fundamental laws setting out the principles, structures, and processes of government?” ANSWER: A constitution

  9. Number 7: QUESTION: What is a form of government in which the leader has absolute power and authority? ANSWER: A dictatorship

  10. Number 8: QUESTION: What is a form of government in which the supreme authority rests with the people? ANSWER: A democracy

  11. Number 9: QUESTION: What is a body of people living in a defined territory who have a government with the power to make and enforce law without the consent of any higher authority? ANSWER: A state

  12. Number 10: QUESTION: What is defined as having supreme power within its own territory; neither subordinate nor responsible to any other authority? ANSWER: sovereignty

  13. Number 11: QUESTION: What did Thomas Hobbes believe about man? ANSWER: government is necessary to prevent "the war of every man against every man." (man is inherently evil)

  14. Number 12: QUESTION: What did John Locke believe about man? ANSWER: We give up certain rights and freedoms to promote the safety and well-being of all (man is naturally good)

  15. Number 13: QUESTION: Which theory of the origins of government claims that states form when one person or group forces others under their control? ANSWER: The Force Theory

  16. Number 14: QUESTION: Which theory of the origins of government claims that states developed naturally out of the early family? ANSWER: The Evolution Theory

  17. Number 15: QUESTION: Which theory of the origins of government claims that God created the state and gave those of royal birth a right to rule? ANSWER: The Divine Right Theory

  18. Number 16: QUESTION: Which theory of the origins of government claims that people within an area gave up power to the state to promote safety of all? ANSWER: The Social Contract Theory

  19. Number 17: QUESTION: In which type of government does a single person hold unlimited political power? ANSWER: An autocracy

  20. Number 18: QUESTION: In which type of government is the power to rule held by a small, usually self-appointed elite? ANSWER: An oligarchy

  21. Number 19: QUESTION: In which type of government do all members of society vote on all issues? ANSWER: A direct democracy

  22. Number 20: QUESTION: In which type of government must members meet specific criteria in order to be eligible to vote? ANSWER: A republic

  23. Number 21: QUESTION: Which type of government elects individual members to make decisions for the whole? ANSWER: A representative democracy

  24. Number 22: QUESTION: Which type of government has a centralized government in which all powers belong to a single, central agency? ANSWER: A unitary government

  25. Number 23: QUESTION: Which type of government divides powers between a central government and several local governments? ANSWER: A federal government

  26. Number 24: QUESTION: What term refers to governmental powers being divided on a geographic basis? ANSWER: Division of powers

  27. Number 25: QUESTION: Which government is an alliance of independent states with a weak central government? ANSWER: A confederation

  28. Number 26: QUESTION: Which government has executive and legislative branches that are separate, independent, and coequal? ANSWER: Presidential government

  29. Number 27: QUESTION: Which government has an executive that is made up of the prime minister and that official's cabinet? ANSWER: Parliamentary government

  30. Number 28: QUESTION: Which characteristic of democracy states that each person, no matter what his or her station in life, is a separate and distinct being? ANSWER: Worth of individuals

  31. Number 29: QUESTION: Which characteristic of democracy states that all are entitled to equality of opportunity and equality before the law? ANSWER: Equality of persons

  32. Number 30: QUESTION: Which characteristic of democracy states that the largest group of people is generally right, but cannot ignore small groups? ANSWER: Majority rule, minority rights

  33. Number 31: QUESTION: Which characteristic of democracy states that democracy can only exist when parties work to find the most acceptable position? ANSWER: Necessity of compromise

  34. Number 32: QUESTION: Which characteristic of democracy states that each individual is as free to do as he or she pleases as far as the freedom of all will allow? ANSWER: Individual freedom

  35. Number 33: QUESTION: What economic system is characterized by the private ownership of capital goods? ANSWER: Free enterprise system

  36. Number 34: QUESTION: What economic law states that when supplies of goods and services become plentiful, prices tend to drop? ANSWER: Law of supply and demand

  37. Number 35: QUESTION: What economic system consists of private enterprise with a considerable amount of government regulation? ANSWER: Mixed economy

  38. Number 36: QUESTION: What type of government is restricted in what it may do, and each individual has certain rights that government cannot take away? ANSWER: Limited government

  39. Number 37: QUESTION: What is a system of government in which public policies are made by officials selected by the voters and held accountable in periodic elections? ANSWER: Representative government

  40. Number 38: QUESTION: Which document, also known as the Great Charter, was forced upon King John of England and established that the power of the monarchy was not absolute? ANSWER: The Magna Carta

  41. Number 39: QUESTION: Which document, prepared by Parliament and signed by King Charles I of England in 1628, challenged the idea of the divine right of kings and declared that even the monarch was subject to the laws of the land? ANSWER: Petition of Right

  42. Number 40: QUESTION: Which document was written by Parliament and agreed on by William and Mary of England in 1689, designed to prevent abuse of power by English monarchs and served as the basis for American politics? ANSWER: English Bill of Rights

  43. Number 41: QUESTION: What is a bicameral legislature? ANSWER: A legislature composed of two houses

  44. Number 42: QUESTION: What is a unicameral legislature? ANSWER: A legislature composed of one house

  45. Number 43: QUESTION: Which group served as the nation’s first national government? ANSWER: The 2nd Continental Congress

  46. Number 44: QUESTION: What is another term for recalling an act of government? ANSWER: repeal

  47. Number 45: QUESTION: What document was signed on July 4, 1776, listing grievances against England? ANSWER: Declaration of Independence

  48. Number 46: QUESTION: What basic principle of American government asserts that the people are the source of any and all power, and government can exist only with the consent of the governed? ANSWER: Popular sovereignty

  49. Number 47: QUESTION: What plan of government was adopted by the Continental Congress after the American Revolution, establishing a "firm league of friendship" among the States? ANSWER: Articles of Confederation

  50. Number 48: QUESTION: What is the formal approval of a constitution, constitutional amendment, or treaty? ANSWER: ratification