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American Government

American Government

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American Government

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  1. American Government Missouri History & Government

  2. Missouri History • First Inhabitants to Today

  3. First Inhabitants • Began with early hunters around 12,000 B.C. • Mainly hunted big game • Then progressed through to smaller game and fish • Some lived in caves • Graham Cave State Park • By 900 A.D. Mississippian tribes controlled much of present day Missouri • Began farming around the rivers, and became sedentary • Missouri, Osage, Delaware, and the Shawnee were present in Missouri • Osage the most dominant of the Mississippian tribes

  4. First Inhabitants (Con’t) • By the beginning of the early 1700’s Europeans began moving into Missouri • Europeans also devastated their populations through diseases and war • Began pushing the Indians west

  5. Early Explorers • The French were the first Europeans to explore present-day Missouri • De La Salle took possession of Missouri for the French • Originally known as Illinois County by the French • In 1673 French Explorer Louis Joliet and Father Jacques-Marquette explored from present-day Green Bay, WI to the Arkansas River • Marquette was a Jesuit priest and Joliet was an map-making explorer • First descriptions of Missouri and Illinois

  6. Early Explorers (Con’t) • First permanent resident was a French Jesuit Priest, Father Gabriel Marest • Established a trading post in the fall of 1700 called Fort Orleans • However, his first settlement was abandoned shortly afterwards • The first permanent settlement in Missouri was St. Genevieve • Established by French Canadian Farmers in 1750 • In 1785 a great flood washed away St. Genevieve • However they did rebuild St. Genevieve

  7. Early Explorers (Con’t) • The Establishment of St. Louis • In 1764, French fur traders, Pierre Laclede and René Auguste Chouteau, established St. Louis • Flourished due to it relative location to the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers • French trade with Indians flourished towards the 1800’s

  8. Trading of Hands • Although Missouri was not involved in the French and Indian War, in 1762 France ceded territory west of the Mississippi to Spain • French trading and culture still the dominant influence • Then by 1800 the land west of the Mississippi was receded back to France • The French then sold the land west of the Mississippi to the United States for $15 million • Called the Louisiana Purchase

  9. Trading of Hands (Con’t) • Lewis and Clark Expedition • Organized by President Thomas Jefferson in order to get a detailed description of the newly purchased land • The expedition set out from St. Louis in 1804 and followed the Missouri River with their Indian guide • Shoshone, Female Indian named Sacagawea • Made it all the way to the Pacific Ocean and back • Having made discoveries for the U.S. citizens of the different types of plants, animals, Indians, and land features

  10. Establishment of Missouri • New Madrid earthquakes of 1811-12 • Series of earthquakes that devastated the area • Estimated to be 7.0 on the Richter scale • Created tsunami like waves in the Mississippi, giving the impression that the Mississippi River was flowing backwards • By 1811, the steamboat and lead mining became the two major industries of the territory of Missouri

  11. Establishment of Missouri (Con’t) • In 1812, the territory of Missouri was established • However the question of whether it was to become a slave state or not became a national debate • Missouri Compromise • In 1821 Missouri became the 24th state that was officially admitted as a slave state • The compromise also stated that no states could be admitted as slave states over the 36º30’ N latitude line

  12. Establishment of Missouri (Con’t) • Current boundaries were established after Native Americans gave up Platte County in 1837 • Northwest corner of Missouri • Fur trade a major source of income

  13. Mormons • Founded by Joseph Smith, Jr. in New York in 1823 • Claimed to have been met by Father God, Jesus Christ and other angels through visions • Given the job to restore Christian Doctrine • Was given Golden Plates to translate into The Book of Mormon • Used stones to translate the golden plates • Took place during the “Second Great Awakening” Period

  14. Mormons (Con’t) • Formed a religious group and moved to Ohio • Established first temple in Kirtland, Ohio • Smith toured Independence, Missouri and encouraged followed to settle there • Planned to established the “City of Zion” or the “New Jerusalem” in 1831 • Mormons lived in close-knit communities

  15. Mormons (Con’t) • Non-Mormon Missourians were suspicious of Mormon beliefs • Mass meeting of Missourians drafted a statement telling Mormons not to settle in Jackson County • Mormon newspaper burned, leaders tarred and feathered

  16. Mormons (Con’t) • Some Mormons left, and the Church asked governor for protections • More violence followed, many Mormons left • Many lost their possessions • State legislature established Caldwell County as new settlement site • Far West was the main town • Grew in population, and Mormons determined to stay in Missouri

  17. “Mormon Wars” in 1838 • Mormons had been started to establish colonies in counties around Caldwell County, angering Non Mormons • Governor Boggs raised a militia, and state that Mormons were enemies and must be killed or driven from state • Mormon leaders surrendered and Far West was looted • Smith and others were court-martialed and sentenced to be shot • Alexander Doniphan, brigadier general in Missouri militia, refused

  18. “Mormon Wars” in 1838 (Con’t) • New trials and leaders either found not guilty or escaped • Established Nauvoo in Illinois • Joseph Smith was murdered in 1844 • Murderers acquitted • Brigham Young led Mormons on trail north of Platte River to Salt Lake Valley in Utah in 1847

  19. Major Events Pre-Civil War • Santa Fe and Oregon trails • Both had starting points in Independence, Westport and St. Joseph Missouri • Individuals would caravan along the routes to trade • Pony Express established in 1860 • Carried mail from St. Joseph, Missouri to San Francisco, California

  20. Stephen Austin • Considered the “Father of Texas” • Raised during his teen years in current Washington County Missouri • His father received a grant from Mexico to establish the colony of Texas • Then his father died but passed on the grant to Stephen • Stephen then moved nearly 1200 Anglo-Americans to present day Texas • Eventually won independence from Mexico • Shortly after Stephen Austin died

  21. Slavery in Missouri • With the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854, the question of slavery was left up to those states • Pro-slavery Missourians became very active trying to win Kansas for the slave cause up to the Civil War

  22. Slavery in Missouri (Con’t) • Bleeding Kansas • Border war and struggle between pro and anti-slavery individuals in Kansas and Missouri • Pro-Slavery individuals, mainly from Missouri, were called “Border Ruffians” • Anti-Slavery individuals, mainly from Kansas, were called Red-legs or Jayhawkers

  23. Slavery in Missouri (Con’t) • Dred Scott Decision of 1857, Supreme Court • African-Americans were not equal citizens • Congress had no authority to prohibit slavery in federal territories • African-Americans could not use federal courts to sue • Slaves could not be taken away from owners without due process

  24. Election of 1860 • In 1958 Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas, ran for the Illinois senate • The most debated question was over the Kansas-Nebraska Act and it’s constitutionality • Douglas won the senate seat • Both individuals ran for President in the 1860 election • Douglas the Democrat • Missouri the only state he won • Abraham Lincoln the Republican • Won the election while only receiving 40% of the popular vote

  25. Civil War and Missouri • Though admitted in the 1820’s as a slave state, Missouri aligned itself with the Union in the Civil War • Missouri’s governor Claiborne Jackson tried to align Missouri with the confederacy • But Union Captain Nathaniel Lyons forced the Jackson government to southern Missouri

  26. Jackson Lyons

  27. Civil War and Missouri (Con’t) • Jackson then organized a militia in southern Missouri, which was controlled by Sterling Price • Confederate Price and Union Lyons battled against one another at Wilsons’ Creek on August 10, 1861 • Confederates won, however Union soldiers maintained controlled of most of Missouri • Guerilla Warfare continued throughout Missouri during the Civil War • After the Battle at Wilsons’ Creek, mainly guerilla warfare • Especially between Kansas and Missouri border

  28. Civil War and Missouri (Con’t) • General Order #11 • In response to the Lawrence Massacre, Union General Thomas Ewing accused western Missourians of supporting the massacre • Ewing declared order #11, which forced the evacuation of four counties near Kansas City • Ewing burned the cities to the ground • George Caleb Bingham painted a famous painting called “General Order no. 11” • Propaganda against Ewing

  29. Constitution of 1865 and 1875 • Missouri Constitution of 1865 abolished slavery and limited the rights of individuals who helped the confederacy during the Civil War • Missouri Constitution of 1875 allowed local, city governments to have some autonomy, though still subordinate to the state legislature • A first in U.S. state history

  30. Missouri Constitution of 1945 • Bill of Rights • Popular sovereignty • Missouri subject only to U.S. constitution • Religious freedom • No public support for religious institutions • Freedom of Speech • Due Process of Law • No Unreasonable Search and Seizure • Trial by Jury

  31. Missouri Constitution of 1945 (Con’t) • Bill of Rights (Con’t) • Right to bear arms • No concealed weapons • Compensation for eminent Domain • Right of Labor to organize and bargain collectively • Crime victim’s rights

  32. Executive Branch • Governor • 30 years old • 15 years a citizen of the United States • 10 years a resident of Missouri • Powers • Executive • Manage the budget • Carry out legislation • Appointments • Department heads, with Senate approval • Members of state boards and commissions • Vacancies in county offices • Fill Vacancies in state-wide elective offices and Congress

  33. Governor Jay Nixon

  34. Executive Branch (Con’t) • Powers (Con’t) • Military • Commander-in-Chief of state militia except when called into federal service • Civil defense and disaster relief • Legislative • State of state address, recommends legislation • Direct appeal to voters • Veto, Line item of appropriations bills • Political Influence • Pardons and reprieves • Excuse or free someone from punishment • reprieve – Delay Punishment • Commute – Lessen Punishment • Extradition

  35. Lieutenant Governor • Same qualifications as Governor • Acts as governor if: • Death, conviction, impeachment, resignation, absence, disability of Governor • May vote to break ties in Senate • Member of boards and commissions

  36. Lieutenant Governor Peter Kinder

  37. Succession • Lieutenant Governor • President Pro Tempore • Speaker of the House • Secretary of State • Auditor • Treasurer • Attorney General

  38. Other state positions • Auditor • 30 years old • Resident of state 10 years • Determines if tax money is being spent efficiently, economically and legally

  39. Other state positions (Con’t) • Secretary of State • 25 years old • Resident of state for at least one year • Keeps non-financial records • prepares ballots and certifies elections • keeper of Great Seal to authenticates official acts of governor

  40. Other state positions (Con’t) • Treasurer • Same qualifications as Secretary of State • Chief financial officer • Nearly $17 Billion in tax revenues • Attorney General • Must be an attorney • Represents the legal interests of the state • Render official opinions to executive, legislative and county prosecutors • May start proceedings to oust corporations from state