The Early Years Deaf Heritage and Education
Before 1816 • No schools for the Deaf • People tried to start schools but they all closed
1817 • Connecticut Asylum for the Education and Instruction of Deaf and Dumb Persons opened • Serviced deaf students from all over the country • Changed the name to the American Asylum • Still open today
Deaf Education in America 1818-1823 1818: New York Institution for the Instruction of the Deaf and Dumb. Later became New York School for the Deaf 1820: Pennsylvania Institution in Philadelphia opened 1823: Kentucky School in Danville opened. First state supported school.
John Jacobs • Hired as a teacher of the deaf at the Kentucky school, but didn’t know how to teach and was only 18 years old! • Had a desire to work with deaf people • Rode his horse to Connecticut where Gallaudet and Clerc mentored him and taught him how to sign • Worked as a teacher for many years in Kentucky and later became superintendent
1851 • Gallaudet died but left an indelible mark on deaf education that is still evident today. • 15 other programs for deaf children were established • Many of the programs used the teaching methods that Gallaudet established
Deaf Education Teachers • Laurent Clerc was the first deaf teacher of the deaf • By 1850, 36 percent of all teachers of the deaf were deaf people. • By 1858, 40.8 percent were deaf.
Growth of Oralism • Oralism is a philosophy that does not support the use of deaf teachers or the use of sign language • Since the growth of oralism there have been fewer and fewer deaf teachers • Currently, only 13.6 of all teachers of the deaf are deaf.
Civil War Years • Many schools for the deaf had to close during the civil war years. • Many of their buildings were seized by the Union or Confederate Army • The Tennessee School even became a hospital and is now a National Landmark • The Kentucky School for the Deaf remained open during the war because superintendent John Jacobs told the officers from both armies that they would have to teach the deaf kids if they moved into the school • John Jacobs died during battle while fighting for the Union Army
Tragedy from Miscommunication • During the Civil War in North Carolina a 55-year-old deaf man was out walking one day and a solider saw him • The solider called out to him and when he didn’t hear the soldier's commands, the solider killed him.
Cows in the Basement • John Jacobs allowed farmers to house their cows in the basement of the Kentucky School. • Stories have it that as soldiers walked by the Kentucky School and heard the cows mooing they thought they could hear speech classes for the deaf.
Oral Education in America • Teaching of speech was not emphasized in the early years of deaf education. • John Engelsman • Moved from Germany and believed in teaching deaf children without signs. • He started The New York Institution for the Improved Instruction of Deaf Mutes. It was the first pure oral school for the deaf in the United States. • After 10 years his school educated 110 students and needed more room, so they moved to Lexington Avenue. • The school is still in existence and is now known as the Lexington School for the Deaf.
Oral Education Cont. • Gardiner Hubbard • 1864: Spoke to the Massachusetts Legislature and asked them to help him establish an oral school for the deaf in Mass. • Set up a small school for deaf children in Chelmsford, Massachusetts and named it the Clarke School for the Deaf. • The Clarke School for the Deaf was a pure oral school and it is still open today and still oral without the use of any sign.
The Natural Method • System using only speech and speech-reading • Supported by Gardiner Hubbard and Engelsman • The National Association for the Deaf called it “The German Method” • The first state school to become totally oral was The Pennsylvania School for the Deaf in Mount Airy