1660–1715 CHAPTER 3 CONTROLLING THE EDGES OF THE CONTINENT CREATED EQUAL JONES WOOD MAY BORSTELMANN RUIZ
“How miserable that man is that Governes a People where six parts of seaven at least are Poore Endebted Discontented and Armed.” Sir William Berkeley, Governor the colony of Virginia, 1676
TIMELINE 1660 Navigation Act Councils for Trade and Plantations created 1661 King Louis XIV, “The Sun King”, assumes control of France 1663 Louis XIV assumes control of New France Royal Adventurers into Africa granted monopoly in slave trade 1664 Charles II regains control of NewNetherland 1665 The Great Plague in Europe 1666 Severe drought in New Mexico 1669 Ashley-Cooper and Locke draw up Fundamental Constitutions 1670 Charter granted to Hudson’s Bay Company 1672 Royal Africa Company granted monopoly in slave trade 1673 Joliet and Marquette explore from upper Mississippi to Gulf of Mexico La Salle builds Fort Frontenac Plantation Duty Act
TIMELINE continued 1674 Peace of Westminster 1675 Metacom’s War (King Philip’s War) 1676 Bacon’s Rebellion 1680 Pueblo revolt 1681 William Penn granted charter to Pennsylvania 1682 La Salle explores the lower Mississippi region, naming “Louisiana” 1685 Louis XIV revokes the Edict of Nantes James II takes English throne 1688 William of Orange and “The Glorious Revolution” 1689 King William’s War 1692 Salem Witch Trials 1697 King William’s War ends Spanish mission, Cahokia established (Illinois)
TIMELINE continued 1701 War of Spanish Succession begins The Act of Settlement 1702 English raiders attack St. Augustine, Florida New Jersey becomes an English royal colony Queen Anne’s War begins 1703 Spanish mission, Kaskaskia, established (Illinois) 1705 The Naval Stores Act 1710 Cary’s Rebellion 1711 Tuscarora Indians war 1712 Crozat granted control of Louisiana 1714 War of Spanish Succession ends 1715 Louis XIV dies Yamasee rebellion 1718 San Antonio de Valero established
CONTROLLING THE EDGES OF THE CONTINENT Overview • France and the American Interior • The Spanish Empire on the Defensive • England’s American Empire Takes Shape • Bloodshed in the English Colonies • Consequences of War and Growth
FRANCE AND THE AMERICAN INTERIOR • The Rise of the Sun King • Exploring the Mississippi Valley • King William’s War in the Northeast • Founding the Louisiana Colony
The Rise of the Sun King • French King Louis XIV: • The French mercantilist strategy to use labor efficiently, import resources and export goods to trade for gold and silver. • The settlers of colonies were to send need natural resources and to make consumers for the manufactured goods. • Jean-Baptiste Colbert, French finance minister shipped agriculture equipment, military governor, artisans and servants to Quebec to promote a vibrant community. • Severe winters and short growing seasons hindered growth • Dissenters were not sent to colonies as the English did, but rather prevented from leaving France • However, 150,000 did manage to migrate to the New World, and many to the English colonies.
Exploring the Mississippi Valley • Jean Nicolet: 1643, travels all the way to modern-day Green Bay, Wisconsin • Joilet and Marquette: 1673, explore the upper Mississippi to the Arkansas River • La Salle: 1673, erects Fort Frontenac on Lake Ontario. • 1682: La Salle explores the lower Mississippi to the Gulf • When he tries to return with ships through the Gulf, his miscalculations land him in Texas where he is killed and most die in the wilderness.
King William’s War in the Northeast • William III, a Protestant takes the English throne in 1689 beginning a 100-year war between Protestant England and Catholic France • The war stretches to America • English align with the Iroquois • French with the Hurons • In 1697 the war ends in stalemate • The Iroquois pledge to remain neutral during future colonial wars • King Carlos II of Spain dies without an heir. Both England and France vie for Spain in the War of Spanish Succession, 1701 to 1714.
Founding the Louisiana Colony • La Salle had claimed the entire river basin of the Mississippi for the French, naming it Louisiana. • Iberville and his brother Bienville • Fort Louis at Biloxi Bay • Other French posts emerge • Peoria, Cahokia, Kaskaskia, Fort de Chartes, Detroit • Louisiana granted to a Paris merchant, Antoine Crozat
THE SPANISH EMPIRE ON THE DEFENSIVE • The Pueblo Revolt in New Mexico • Navajos and Spanish on the Southwestern Frontier • Borderland Conflict in Texas and Florida
The Pueblo Revolt in New Mexico • Drought, Apache and Navajo attacks, and controversy over religion flame rebellion by Pueblos at Santa Fe. • Sexuality: Pueblos clashed with Catholics in their acceptance of homosexuality, the importance of sexuality to social and spiritual life. • Mixed-race people supported the rebellion as well • Popé, militant leader, invokes Po he yemu, the sun spirit • August 10th the Pueblos triumph over the Catholic settlers
Navajos and Spanish on the Southwestern Frontier • Navajos benefit from Pueblo refugees • Horses, improved corn farming, textiles, weaving • The friar-explorer Eusebio Kino • Travels to the Sonoran Desert in Arizona • Meets the Yuma Indians and deduces that California is part of the mainland • Spanish unable to benefit from this knowledge until 1760s
Borderland Conflict in Texas and Florida • Texas • Spanish establish several colonies in Texas • Expanded Spanish missionaries and outposts in east Texas. • San Antonio de Valero (1718) • Florida • Florida natives gravitate to Carolinas nearer the English • Spanish livestock ruining gardens and Catholicism breeds resentment in the Florida Indians • 1702: English raiders attack St. Augustine • 1704: Carolina Governor, James Moore invades Apalachee Floriday destroying the missions
ENGLAND’S AMERICAN EMPIRE TAKES SHAPE • Monarchy Restored and Navigation Controlled • Fierce Anglo-Dutch Competition • The New Restoration Colonies
Monarch Restored and Navigation Controlled • 1660: Navigation Act • Merchants could not conduct trade to or from English colonies in foreign-owned ships • Non-English products from foreign lands had to be carried in English ships or with mostly English crews • Certain products could not go straight from colonies to European ports, but had to pass through England first • 1663: Navigation Act • Products from European ports to colonies had to go through England • 1673: Plantation Duty Act • Captains had to pay plantation duty before moving goods between colonies
Fierce Anglo-Dutch Competition • Navigation Acts disturb Dutch trade and war breaks out between England and Holland • Peace of Westminister in 1674 brings gains to the English: • Island in Africa at the Gambia and Cape Coast Castle on the Gold Coast challenging Dutch dominance • New York, the region from Delaware River and the Connecticut River
The New Restoration Colonies • Charles II grants charters • 1670: Hudson Bay Company, trade, minerals, land in northern Canada • 1679: New Hampshire a proprietorship • 1681: William Penn granted a charter to Pennsylvania • 1674: East and West Jersey divided. In 1702 united. • 1669: Ashley-Cooper, Carolina proprietor, and John Locke, draw up Fundamental Constitutions
BLOODSHED IN THE ENGLISH COLONIES • Metacom’s War in New England • Bacon’s Rebellion in Virginia • The “Glorious Revolution” in England • The “Glorious Revolution” in America
Metacom’s War in New England • Metacom’s (Wampanoag tribe) grievances with the English: • Indians were cheated in trade deals • Livestock trampled crops • Colonists outnumber the Native Americans • John Sassamon, and Indian informer is killed by and 3 Wampanoags are hanged for the crime by the English • January 1675: The “Great Swamp Fight” • Narragansetts align with the Wampanoags • Mohawks oppose Metacom and Christian Indians join colonial forces • August 1675: Metacom beheaded , wife and children sold into slavery in the West Indies, and colonists rebuild
Bacon’s Rebellion in Virginia • 1676: Nathaniel Bacon wages a war against the Occaneechis and the Susquehannocks, challenging leadership of Governor Berkeley. • Bacon is joined by backcountry leaders, landless poor and runaway workers and slaves looking to grab some of the Indians land. • Summer of 1676, Bacon takes over Berkeley’s Green Springs, and burns down Jamestown. • Ocotober 1676, Bacon dies and reinforcements come from England
The “Glorious Revolution” in England • 1685: Charles II dies, and James II, a Catholic, succeeds him. • 1688: Fear over prosecution of Protestants and faced with a male heir to James II, William of Orange mounts an army and invades England • James abdicates, and Parliament grants toleration to Protestants
The “Glorious Revolution” in America • Before James II abdicated, he nullified charters for some colonies and created the Dominion of New England • Sir Edmond Andros ruled the Dominion strictly and enforced the Navigation Laws. • April 1689, a rebellion in Boston throws Andros in jail • New Yorkers also oust Dominion officials and militia captain Leisler begins a Revolution. • Maryland, Protestants seize the government in support of the new constitutional monarchy.
CONSEQUENCES OF WAR AND GROWTH, 1690-1715 • Salem’s Wartime Witch Hunt • The Uneven Costs of War • Storm Clouds in the South
Salem’s Wartime Witch Hunt • Salem Village, 1692 • Young women suffer convulsive fits, hallucinations and accuse a slave couple of witchcraft. The accusations grow, and hangings ensue. • Mass hysteria? Mosquito encephalitis? Posttraumatic stress brought on by war?
The Uneven Costs of War • Some benefit: • Farmers with access to ports to sell goods to fleets • Wartime smuggling • Privateers • Shipbuilders • Some paid the price: • Poor people paid regressive taxes • Poor people paid wartime prices for food • Poor people died in combat or of disease
Storm Clouds in the South • The Carolinas become populated by radicals from the Restoration, runaway servants, or migrants from the proprietors Carolina settlement on the Ashley River • Cary’s Rebellion in 1710 recognizes North Carolina independent of Carolina • 1711: Tuscarora Indians rebel against corrupt traders and land encroachment, but are defeated by settlers, and Yamasee Indians • 1715: Yamasee, with the support of Creek Indians, Spanish settlers, and French traders rebel against English.