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Unit 3, Unit 5 minorities.fsv.cuni.cz/

Unit 3, Unit 5 http://minorities.fsv.cuni.cz/. Rac is m, discrimination & policy response Equal oportunity – from law to practice Migration-Asylum Nexus. Unit Structure. Racism, discrimination Inclusion, rights, equity EO: From law to practice Activities on discrimination

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Unit 3, Unit 5 minorities.fsv.cuni.cz/

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  1. Unit 3, Unit 5http://minorities.fsv.cuni.cz/ • Racism, discrimination & policy response • Equal oportunity – from law to practice • Migration-Asylum Nexus

  2. Unit Structure • Racism, discrimination • Inclusion, rights, equity • EO: From law to practice • Activities on discrimination • AQCI on Brubacker • Migration- asylum nexus

  3. QUIZ: Just one question to torture your memory… Referring to the reader what is the difference between multicultural and plural societies? Furnivall in all three texts

  4. Racism & isms ……… sexism, disableism, ageism, homophobia Neil Thompson Racism can be defined as • an attitude (ideology) or action (behaviour) that disadvantages individuals or groups • on the basis of their “racial” inferiority*, mainly by means of • limiting their access to scarce resources. *Racial difference or racial inferiority is often perceived or constructed in terms of different culture, ethnicity, religion, language, etc.

  5. Discrimination/isms:Personal – Cultural - StructuralNeil Thompson

  6. Explanations of racism: 1. Psychological”Some people are like that” 2. Lack of knowledge, ignorance „To know is to love“ 3.Intergroup relations ”Birds of a feather” 4.Individuals are racists because the structures, practices, and values of our society are racist. ”Its the system”

  7. Racisms – cont. • from violent attacks or scapegoating • topaternalistic crypto-racistassistance to m. • tendency to deny racism (unacceptable) two main meanings: 1) ideology (beliefs) about racial superiority 2) “the whole complex of factors which produce racial discrimination” and sometimes also “those which produce racial disadvantage” Cashmore

  8. Racism as ideology 1. the so called “scientific racism of the 19th century”, manifested for example in the publication by Herrnstein, Murray, 1995 2. “popular” racism or “common sense” racism that is based on ethnocentrism, a tendency to believe that one´s own cultural paradigm is universal, neutral and superior to any other culture

  9. In other words… Racism 1. denies all difference in the name of universality of the human nature, but unconsciously it takes back this universality to the dominant model; 2. uses the obvious differences to turn them into instruments of domination, exploitation, condemnation, exclusion, or extermination.

  10. Racisms- cont. • „Racism, in short, involves • stereotypes about difference and inferiority • use of power to exclude, discriminate, subjugate“ • The Parekh Report, 2000 • Attitudes • Behaviour • Structures Inequality Prejudice Discrimination

  11. Racisms – cont. Prejudice Discrimination Exclusion

  12. assimilation is possible yes no assimilation is required yes compulsory assimilation racist double-bind no pluralism segregation Assimilation and Racism(Bauböck)

  13. assimilationist policies inclusiveness

  14. Assimilationist model DIFFERENCEDEFICIT COMPENSATORY PROGRAMMES Does the individual fit into the System or ‘Institution’? ASSIMILATION

  15. Curriculum (Multiculturalism) model Cultural Effects CULTURES LIFESTYLES ATTITUDES TOLERANCE AND HARMONY  Does the organisation of this ‘institution’ recognise Diversity ? PLURALIST

  16. Equity/Rights Model Social and Political Effects EQUITY PARTICIPATION LIFE CHANCES Are people enabled in this‘institution’? Do the structures allow for achievement, growth and opportunities? ANTIDISCRIMINATORY

  17. 2. Equal oportunity-From Law to Practice i. Notes on the EO concept available here ii. Development of EU law iii. Activities

  18. Equal Opportunities • Equal opportunities for men and women • Race equality in the United Kingdom • Positive action • Paradoxes of equal opportunities

  19. The Treaty of Rome, 1957 Article 119 EEC: 1975 Directive 117 1976 Directive 207 1979 Directive 7 1986 Directives 378 + 613 1992 Directive 85 European legislation

  20. European Court of Justice • Defrenne vs Sabena 1976 • Jenkins vs Kingsgate 1981 • Marshall vs Southampton 1986 • Bilka and Kaufhaus vs Weber 1986

  21. Definitions • Direct discrimination: People in the same situation are treated differently. • Indirect discrimination: People in different situations are treated the same but this has an adverse impact on one group.

  22. Equality for women = a model for race equality -> « minority rights » vs citizenship rights Both = labour market related!

  23. Legislation in the UK • Race Relations Act 1976: -> Commission for Racial Equality • White paper on the Commission for Equality and Human Rights 2003 (CRE + EOC + CD)

  24. Conclusion to EO Citizenship rights + humanitarian obligations = not an absolute right but applied with qualified amendments. Group work : Case Studies (ERRC) Case study 1 -  Access to public services Case study 2 -  Access to employment Case study 3 -  Education

  25. 3. The Migration-Asylum Nexus Definition and significance South (sending, mig. producing countries) macro-, micro- level Receiving (transit) countries macro-, micro- Forced vs Economic? Or Forced and Economic? Future prospects Case of Germany

  26. What is the 'migration-asylum' nexus • Growing difficulty in separating between forced and economic migration • Closely related causes of forced and economic migration • Increasing similarities in the migratory process for both categories • Common responses: lack of differentiation between asylum seekers and irregular migrants

  27. 'Category jumping': Examples • Portuguese workers in France - 1960s Refugees from fascism Use of people smugglers Regularisation as workers If workers are needed, employers and governments don't care if they are refugees • Burmese in Thailand • The Roma in Europe (asylum seekers from Slovakia)

  28. A global problem: forced migration (2003-4) Refugees (1951 Convention definition) 9.7 million (recognised by UNHCR) Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) 25 m (13 m of them in Africa) Development Induced Displacement 10 million a year (World Bank) Environmental change and disasters Numbers unknown UHNCR

  29. Towards a political economy of forced migration • Globalisation: the North-South Gap • Selective inclusion and exclusion in global economy: 'disconnection' • Trade, investment and development • Trade in small arms, conflict diamonds etc. • 'Reconnection' of South and North through ”unwanted' flows and networks • Migration as a form of 'reconnection'

  30. The migration-asylum nexus in the South: macro-level • Links between poverty, weak states, human rights abuse and conflict • Complex emergencies lead to many types of displacement • Internal displacement often means impoverishment - and further migration • Conflict prevents development - causes economic migration • Many migrants have multiple motivations

  31. Political economy of forced migration in the South: micro level Approaches: Commodity chain analysis Livelihood studies Examples: Conflict diamonds in Sierra Leone Cobalt mining in DR Congo Afghanistan: survival in enduring conflict The role of arms trafficking

  32. The MAN in Countries of first asylum and transit Thailand: new industrial country with: labour emigration and immigration refugee inflows Malaysia: Indonesian and Filipino labour - often really refugees Tanzania: less-developed country with: Long-standing and diverse refugee population Strains of long-term support

  33. The migration-asylum nexus in the process of mobility • Category jumping as a rational strategy • Policies as 'opportunity structures' • Migration barriers (visas, carrier sanctions, safe third countries, buffer zones) - create demand for the 'migration industry' • The importance of migration networks • Irregular movement may lead to long-term irregularity

  34. The nexus between asylum and irregular migration in receiving countries - macro • Deterrent measures create incentives for irregular employment and residence • Irregular entry helps create networks for irregular work and life • Unmet labour demand for low-skilled workers encourages informal sector • Media-driven asylum panic leads to hypocritical asylum policies

  35. The micro-level: how does asylum affect local communities? • Local conflicts about asylum centres • Fears of 'cheap labour' in areas of social exclusion • Welfare challenges (e.g. assisting unaccompanied minors) • Destitution as challenge to local authorities • Dispersal, concentration and potential ethnic conflicts

  36. Migration from Sri Lanka (UK) • Elite/professionals • Students • Refugees and asylum seekers • Labour migration • Family reunion/foundation

  37. Tamils in the UK • Post independence 1948: professionals • From 1960s, discrimination and hardening ethnic nationalisms: students • From 1980s: conflict refugees and asylum seekers • 1990s: acceleration of asylum migration • From 2002: decline in asylum migration • Family reunion • From 2000: regrouping/relocation/secondary migration

  38. Consequences of the Migration-Asylum Nexus • Diversified migrant populations in host countries • Diversified migrant destinations: diasporisation • Proliferation and diversification of transnational linkages - Households at home have a portfolio of transnational resources - Diaspora households have a portfolio of obligations

  39. The future of the migration-asylum nexus • Era of asylum migration to affluent countries drawing to close • Asylum migration to middle income countries? • Other legal channels will continue: limited labour migration, family reunion, high skilled, students ... • Irregular migration will continue • Regrouping: eg movement from continental Europe to the UK • Containment of 'mixed migration' in regions of origin • In- region migration management: sorting migrants in regions of origin • Effects on diaspora formation, transnational links, and the global political economy?

  40. Case of Germany http://www.proasyl.de/ GERMANY’S IMMIGRATION LAW MARKS ONE YEAR http://www.icare.to/article.php?id=1292&lang=en ASYLUM SEEKER NUMBERS IN GERMANY FALL BY 18PC http://www.icare.to/article.php?id=1351&lang=en http://www.icare.to/

  41. Additional info • Article on Asylum trends is available here

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