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  1. AP Psychology Review

  2. Test Taking Strategies • General Tips for Test Taking • Multiple Choice Section • Free Response Questions

  3. General Tips for Test Taking • Know the structure of the test • Multiple Choice Section - 100 questions • A-E • Column format • Questions taken from every unit on a percentage basis

  4. AP Psychology Exam Structure History and Approaches 2-4% Research Methods 8-10% Biological Bases of Behavior 8-10% Sensation and Perception 6-8% States of Consciousness 2-4% Learning 7-9% Cognition 8-10% Motivation and Emotion 6-8% Developmental Psychology 7-9% Personality 5-7% Testing and Individual Differences 5-7% Abnormal Psychology 7-9% Treatment of Psychological Disorders 5-7% Social Psychology 8-10%

  5. AP Psychology Exam Structure Research Methods 8-10% Biological Bases of Behavior 8-10% Cognition 8-10% Social Psychology 8-10% Abnormal Psychology 7-9% Developmental Psychology 7-9% Learning 7-9% Motivation and Emotion 6-8% Sensation and Perception 6-8% Personality 5-7% Testing and Individual Differences 5-7% Treatment of Psychological Disorders 5-7% History and Approaches 2-4% States of Consciousness 2-4%

  6. AP Psychology Exam Structure History, Approaches and Research Methods 10-14% Biological Bases of Behavior 8-10% Cognition 8-10% Social Psychology 8-10% Abnormal Psychology 7-9% Developmental Psychology 7-9% Learning 7-9% Motivation and Emotion 6-8% Sensation and Perception 6-8% Personality 5-7% Testing and Individual Differences 5-7% Treatment of Psychological Disorders 5-7% States of Consciousness 2-4%

  7. General Tips for Test Taking • Know the structure of the test • Free Response Section - 2 questions • No choice • Multiple parts

  8. Free Response Question 2009 #1 1. Dimitri and Linda are trying to learn a new routine to compete successfully in a dance competition. Give an example of how each of the following could affect their performance. Definitions without application do not score. • Extrinsic motivation • Punishment • Proactive interference • Endorphins • Vestibular system • Divergent thinking • Introversion

  9. Free Response Question 2009 #2 2. James is in a driver’s education course preparing to take his driving test. The course includes both book work and driving on the road to prepare students for a written test and a road test. (a) Describe how each of the following might influence his ability to drive a car during the road test. Definitions without application do not score. • Cognitive map • Cerebellum • Observational learning • Human factors (b) Describe how each of the following are related to the results of the written test. Definitions without application do not score. • Reticular formation • Predictive validity • Semantic memory

  10. General Tips for Test Taking • Make good use of your time and be aware of time restraints • Multiple Choice - 70 minutes (100 questions) • Free Response - 50 minutes (2 questions) • Bring a watch to the test • Directions on exam (see next slide)

  11. General Tips for Test Taking • Make good use of your time and know your time restraints • “Use your time effectively, working as quickly as you can without losing accuracy. Do not spend too much time on any one question. Go on to other questions and come back to the ones you have not answered if you have time. It is not expected that everyone will know the answers to all of the multiple-choice questions.”

  12. General Tips for Test Taking • Read the directions carefully • “Mark the one best answer” • “Mark all correct answers” • AP Psychology test says: • “Each of the questions or incomplete statements below is followed by five suggested answers or completions. Select the one that is best in each case and then fill in the corresponding oval on the answer sheet.”

  13. General Tips for Test Taking • Know how the test is graded • Multiple Choice • 2/3 of overall grade • 100 Points • Free Response • 1/3 of overall grade • 50 Points • 150 Total Points

  14. General Tips for Test Taking • Is there an adjustment for guessing? • 1.25 points off for each incorrect answer • 1 point off if the question is left blank

  15. General Tips for Test Taking • About Guessing “Many students wonder whether or not to guess the answers to questions about which they are not certain. In this section of the exam, as a correction for random guessing, one-fourth of the number of questions you answer incorrectly will be subtracted from the number of questions you answer correctly. If you are not sure of the best answer but have some knowledge of the question and are able to eliminate one or more of the answer choices, your chance of answering correctly improved, and it may be to your advantage to answer such a question.”

  16. Guessing on the AP Psychology Exam • Why you should guess on the AP Psychology Exam • Jim answers 70 questions and is unsure about the other 30. • If he leaves the 30 questions blank, he gets 70 points. • 70 – (0)( ¼) = 70 • If he guesses at the 30 questions, he is likely to get 1 in 5, or 6, correct and 24 incorrect. • 76 – (24)( ¼) = 70       No difference.  He breaks even. • If he can eliminate one incorrect choice and guess at the 30 questions, he is likely to get 1 in 4, or 7.5, correct.  To be safe, let’s call it 7. • 77 – (23)( ¼) = 71.25   He comes out 1.25 points ahead.

  17. Guessing on the AP Psychology Exam • Why you should guess on the AP Psychology Exam • If he can eliminate two incorrect choices and guess at the 30 questions, he is likely to get 1 in 3, or 10, correct. • 80 – (20)( ¼) = 75      He comes out 5 points ahead. • If he can eliminate three incorrect choices and guess at the 30 questions, he is likely to get 1 in 2, or 15, correct. • 85 – (15)( ¼) = 81.25  He comes out 11.25 points ahead.

  18. General Tips for Test Taking Section I: Multiple Choice [ _____ - (1/4 X _____ )] X 1.000 = __________ Number CorrectNumber WrongMultiple-Choice Score(If less than zero, enter zero) Notes: If any questions are thrown out the 1.0 will change to reflect that change. 1999 – two questions 1.0204 2007 – one question 1.0101

  19. General Tips for Test Taking Section II: Free Response (Assumes one 8 point and one 10 point question) (3.1250 X _______) + (2.500 X ________ ) = _____ Question 1 Question 2 Free Response (Out of 8) (Out of 10) Score Note: The numbers will change dependent on how many points each question in a given year is worth.

  20. General Tips for Test Taking Section III: Composite Score ______________ + ___________ = _______________ Multiple Choice Free Response Composite Score Score Score Section IV: Final Score

  21. General Tips for Test Taking 5 Section I: Multiple Choice [ _____ - (1/4 X _____ )] X 1.000 = __________ Number CorrectNumber WrongMultiple-Choice Score(If less than zero, enter zero) Notes: If any questions are thrown out the 1.0 will change to reflect that change. 74 69 20

  22. General Tips for Test Taking Section III: Composite Score ______________ + ___________ = _______________ Multiple Choice Free Response Composite Score Score Score Section IV: Final Score 69.00

  23. General Tips for Test Taking Section II: Free Response (Assumes two 8 point and 8 point question) (3.1250 X _______) + (2.500 X ________ ) = _____ Question 1 Question 2 Free Response (Out of 8) (Out of 10) Score Note: The numbers will change dependent on how many points each question in a given year is worth. 15 18.75 6 33.75 6

  24. General Tips for Test Taking Section III: Composite Score ______________ + ___________ = _______________ Multiple Choice Free Response Composite Score Score Score Section IV: Final Score 69.00 33.75 102.75

  25. General Tips for Test Taking • Don’t waste time with extremely difficult questions • Don't waste time pondering difficult-to-answer questions excessively. If you have no idea at all, just guess (if there is no penalty for doing so) and go on. If you need to devote a good deal of time to the question, skip it and mark it so you can return to it later if time permits.

  26. General Tips for Test Taking • Are charts, graphs, drawings, etc. on the test? • Are there names on the test?

  27. General Tips for Test Taking • Keep to the level of the test • Adopt the appropriate level of sophistication for the test. Don't read things into questions. Sometimes students make things more complex that they were intended to be. Often, simple-looking questions are just what they appear to be. • AP Psychology test appears to go from easiest questions to the hardest questions.

  28. General Tips for Test Taking • Ask questions if you can • Unless it is explicitly forbidden, don't hesitate to ask the examiner to clarify a question when necessary. Many examiners will graciously provide a great deal of useful information. • AP Psychology test: You cannot ask any questions.

  29. General Tips for Test Taking • If possible, review your answers • If you complete all of the questions and still have some time remaining, review the test. Make sure that you have recorded your answers correctly, especially when using a scanner sheet. If you were unsure of some answers, go back and reconsider them.

  30. Tips for Multiple Choice Questions Multiple Choice Question Structure Stem 1.Which of the following is responsible for focusing the image on the retina? Decoys/distracters A. cornea B. optic nerve C. rods D. cones Correct Answer E. lens

  31. Tips for Multiple Choice Questions Anticipate the answer As you read the stem of each multiple choice question, anticipate the answer if you can, before looking at the options. If the answer you anticipated is among the options, it is likely to be the correct one.

  32. Tips for Multiple Choice Questions Anticipate the answer When Shelly first had cable television service installed, Public Broadcasting (PBS) was on channel 9. Her cable company then switched PBS to channel 16. Shelly now has trouble remembering that PBS is on channel 16 and not on channel 9. This memory problem represents (AP Psychology Exam 2004 #86)

  33. Tips for Multiple Choice Questions Anticipate the answer When Shelly first had cable television service installed, Public Broadcasting (PBS) was on channel 9. Her cable company then switched PBS to channel 16. Shelly now has trouble remembering that PBS is on channel 16 and not on channel 9. This memory problem represents (A) memory decay (B) retrograde amnesia (C) reconstruction errors (D) retroactive interference (E) proactive interference (AP Psychology Exam 2004 #86)

  34. Tips for Multiple Choice Questions Anticipate the answer When Shelly first had cable television service installed, Public Broadcasting (PBS) was on channel 9. Her cable company then switched PBS to channel 16. Shelly now has trouble remembering that PBS is on channel 16 and not on channel 9. This memory problem represents (A) memory decay (B) retrograde amnesia (C) reconstruction errors (D) retroactive interference (E) proactive interference (AP Psychology Exam 2004 #86)

  35. Tips for Multiple Choice Questions Completely read each question and every answer Always read each question completely. Continue reading even if you find your anticipated answer among the options. There may be a more complete option farther down the list.

  36. Tips for Multiple Choice Questions Completely read each question and every answer Which of the following is evidence of the reliability of a new intelligence test? (A) A correlation of +0.90 exists between scores on the new test and scores on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. (B) The test predicts students’ ability to succeed in college. (C) The correlation between scores for identical twins taking the test is +0.90. (D) Baseline data for test norming are obtained from a diverse sample of several thousand participants. (E) The correlation between scores of participants who take two forms of the test is +0.90. (AP Psychology Exam 2004 #70)

  37. Tips for Multiple Choice Questions Completely read each question and every answer Which of the following is evidence of the reliability of a new intelligence test? (A) A correlation of +0.90 exists between scores on the new test and scores on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. (B) The test predicts students’ ability to succeed in college. (C) The correlation between scores for identical twins taking the test is +0.90. (D) Baseline data for test norming are obtained from a diverse sample of several thousand participants. (E) The correlation between scores of participants who take two forms of the test is +0.90. (AP Psychology Exam 2004 #70)

  38. Tips for Multiple Choice Questions Re-phrase complicated questions If the question is too complex try to re-phrase it into a form you can understand. “In their deliberations and discussions regarding the process of developmental maturation, the advocates of the importance of nurture in the nature/nurture controversy emphasize which of the following concepts?” Which of the following do those who believe in nurture believe?

  39. Tips for Multiple Choice Questions Stick to the subject matter Watch for answers that have nothing to do with the subject matter of the course or have nothing to do with the subject matter of the particular unit the question is testing.

  40. Tips for Multiple Choice Questions Stick to the subject matter Alfred Binet’s most important contribution to psychology was in the area of (A) intelligence testing (B) visual perception (C) psychopathology (D) comparative psychology (E) classical conditioning (AP Psychology Exam 2004 #34)

  41. Tips for Multiple Choice Questions Stick to the subject matter Alfred Binet’s most important contribution to psychology was in the area of (A) intelligence testing (B) visual perception (C) psychopathology (D) comparative psychology (E) classical conditioning (AP Psychology Exam 2004 #34)

  42. Tips for Multiple Choice Questions Watch for help Look for answers or help within other questions of the test.

  43. Tips for Multiple Choice Questions Watch for help Which of the following theoretical frameworks would argue most strongly that a healthy child will choose what is good for his or her growth? (A) Social learning theory (B) Psychoanalytic (C) Behavioral (D) Humanistic (E) Psychodynamic (AP Psychology Exam 2004 #05)

  44. Tips for Multiple Choice Questions Watch for help Which of the following theoretical frameworks would argue most strongly that a healthy child will choose what is good for his or her growth? (A) Social learning theory (B) Psychoanalytic (C) Behavioral (D) Humanistic (E) Psychodynamic (AP Psychology Exam 2004 #05)

  45. Tips for Multiple Choice Questions Watch for help The humanistic perspective in psychology suggests that (A) most behavior can be explained by operant conditioning principles (B) all humans have peak experiences (C) all humans are by nature good (D) humans are doomed to a life of neurosis and suffering (E) self-actualization can happen only through therapy (AP Psychology Exam 2004 #49)

  46. Tips for Multiple Choice Questions Watch for help The humanistic perspective in psychology suggests that (A) most behavior can be explained by operant conditioning principles (B) all humans have peak experiences (C) all humans are by nature good (D) humans are doomed to a life of neurosis and suffering (E) self-actualization can happen only through therapy (AP Psychology Exam 2004 #49)

  47. Tips for Multiple Choice Questions Use “all of the above” to your advantage On items that have "all of the above" as an option, if you know that just two of the options are correct, you should choose "all of the above." If you are confident that one of the options is incorrect, you should eliminate this option and "all of the above" and choose from the remaining options. AP Psychology exam has not had any “all of the above” or “none of the above” questions

  48. Tips for Multiple Choice Questions Use qualifiers and 100% words Qualifiers: often, sometimes, perhaps, may, generally, some, seldom, usually, ordinarily, etc. Options that use qualifiers tend to be correct. 100% words: never, none, no, every, always, all, only, entirely, necessarily, completely, totally, etc. Options that represent broad, sweeping generalizations tend to be incorrect.

  49. Tips for Multiple Choice Questions Use flaws within the test to your advantage Many writers of test questions make mistakes that you can use to help determine the correct answer.