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Welcome!!! Take out your notebook

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Welcome!!! Take out your notebook

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  1. Welcome!!! Take out your notebook Copy down the following heading and get ready for some notes Due today: • Period 4 Test Corrections Tuesday: - Civil War Documentary (packet work) Wednesday: • QUIZ: Road to Civil War and Civil War • In-class packet work (Reconstruction) Thursday: • In-class review • After school study session Due Friday: • Period 5 Packet #2 • Period 5 Packet # 3 (Activities 1-7)PERIOD 5 TEST!!!! 1820-1860: Increasing Sectionalism & the Road to the Civil War

  2. 1820-1860: Increasing Sectionalism & the Road to the Civil War

  3. The Sectional Crisis

  4. Essential Question: • Was the Civil War inevitable?

  5. Sectionalism in the Antebellum Era “King Cotton” had transformed the South into a rural region with slavery, little manufacturing, & few railroads • From 1800-1860, the North & South became vastly different regions

  6. Sectionalism in the Antebellum Era The North had industrial factories, cities, paid immigrant workers, railroads, & larger population • From 1800-1860, the North & South became vastly different regions

  7. Sectionalism in the Antebellum Era These regional differences increased sectionalism -- placing the interests of a region above the interests of the nation • 1820-1850: Sectionalism was mild & resolved by compromise

  8. Sectionalism: 1820-1850 The first major issue regarding slavery in the antebellum era focused on Missouri becoming a state in 1820: • Northerners & Southerners did not want to upset the equal balance of free & slave states in the Senate • Northerners did not want slavery to spread beyond the “Deep South” • Southerners did not think Congress had the power to stop slavery

  9. Maine broke from Massachusetts & became a free state In 1820, Henry Clay negotiated the Missouri Compromise“The firebell in the night!” Missouri became a slave state Slavery was outlawed in all western territories above the latitude of 36°30'

  10. Sectionalism: 1820-1850 In the 1830s, the issue of tariffs divided North & South • Southerners argued that tariffs benefited only the North & made manufactured goods too expensive • John C. Calhoun of SC attempted nullification & threatened secession • President Jackson fought this states’ rights argument

  11. Texas was not annexed for 9 years because statehood would unbalance the number of free & slave states Sectionalism: 1820-1850 In the 1840s, westward expansion brought the issue of slavery up again: The addition of the Mexican Cessionafter the Mexican-American War gave Southerners hope that slavery would spread to the Pacific Ocean

  12. Sectionalism: 1820-1850 • In 1850, California asked to enter the Union as a free state: • Southerners did not want more free states & wanted slavery to be allowed in the southwest territories • Northerners wanted to keep slavery out of the SW & wanted other laws to protect runawayslaveswho made it to freedom in the North

  13. The Compromise of 1850 solved the sectional dispute between North & South The people of Utah & New Mexico could voteto allow or ban slavery (popular sovereignty) The slave trade ended in Washington DC A stronger Fugitive Slave Law was created that allowed Southerners to recapture slaves in the North California entered as a free state

  14. The Compromise of 1850: Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, & John Calhoun

  15. Sectionalism: 1820-1850 • From 1820 to 1850, sectionalism in America increased due to • Differences in regional economies& the use of slavery • Westward expansion & the entry of new states to the Union • Growing abolitionismin the North • But, each time a dispute threatened the nation, a compromisewas reached

  16. Sectionalism in the Antebellum Era These regional differences increased sectionalism -- placing the interests of a region above the interests of the nation • 1820-1850: Sectionalism was mild & resolved by compromise • 1850-1856: The growth of abolitionism & westward expansion intensified the question of the “morality” of slavery

  17. Sectionalism: 1850-1856 • Abolitionists & many Northerners despised the Compromise of 1850: • The Fugitive Slave Law allowed runaway slaves (& sometimes “free blacks”) to be recaptured & enslaved • Northerners formed vigilante committees to protect runaways • Abolitionism grew in the North

  18. The Underground Railroad was a network of safe housesto help slaves escape to freedom Harriet Tubman made 19 trips South to lead 300 slaves to freedom through the Underground Railroad

  19. Sectionalism: 1850-1856 • In 1852 Harriet Beecher Stowe published Uncle Tom’s Cabin • Depicted slavery as a moral evil • Became the best selling book of the 19th century • Inspired many in the North to join the abolitionist cause "So you're the little lady who started this great war!"

  20. Sectionalism: 1850-1856 • In 1854, Congress passed Stephen Douglas’Kansas-Nebraska Act • The law used popular sovereigntyto give the residents of the territories the right to vote to determine slavery • To do this, Congress repealed (ended) the Missouri Compromise lineat36º30’inthewesternterritories

  21. The Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854

  22. Sectionalism: 1850-1856 • Northerners were outraged by the Kansas-Nebraska Act: • Congress allowed slavery to spread into an area of the U.S. where slavery was already outlawed • Northerners formed the RepublicanParty in 1854 & became committed to the “free soil” movement

  23. Sectionalism: 1850-1856 • Popular sovereignty failed to settle the slavery question in the West: • When a vote was held in Kansas in 1855 to decide on slavery, thousands of Missouri residents illegally voted • This illegal vote gave Kansas slavery when its residents voted against it • In 1856, a war began between Kansas & Missouri (“Bleeding Kansas”)

  24. The vote revealed a pro-slavery victory which led to a violent civil war in Kansas “Bleeding Kansas” Thousands of pro-slavery Missouri residents crossed the border & voted for slavery Free-soilers from Kansas voted against slavery

  25. Sectionalism: 1850-1856 • From 1850 to 1856, sectionalism in America increased due to: • The growth of abolitionism due to the Fugitive Slave Law, Uncle Tom’s Cabin, & the Kansas-Nebraska Act • The birth of regional (not national) political parties like the Republicans • Sectional tensions were becoming so bad that compromise was not an option

  26. Sectionalism in the Antebellum Era These regional differences increased sectionalism -- placing the interests of a region above the interests of the nation • 1820-1850: Sectionalism was mild & resolved by compromise • 1850-1856: The growth of abolitionism & westward expansion intensified the question of the “morality” of slavery • 1856-1860: The slave issue became “irreconcilable” & led to the Civil War

  27. Sectionalism: 1856-1860 • In 1857, a slave named Dred Scottsuedforhisfreedomaftertravelingwith his master from Missouri to Wisconsin • The Dred Scott case presented the Supreme Court with 2 major questions: • Does Congress have the power to decide on slavery in the territories? • Is the Missouri Compromise constitutional?

  28. Sectionalism: 1856-1860 • In Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857), the Supreme Court ruled: • Dred Scott had no right to suebecause African Americans were not citizens • Congress did not have the power to stop slavery in western territories so the Missouri Compromise was ruled unconstitutional • Northern abolitionists were furious

  29. Lincoln was unknown at the time, but during the campaign he argued that Congress must stop the spread of slavery (free soil argument) Sectionalism: 1856-1860 • In 1858, Democrat Stephen Douglas ran against Republican Abraham Lincoln for the Illinois Senate Lincoln lost the Senate election, but his argument against slavery made him a popular national figure

  30. “A house divided against itself cannot stand. I believe this government cannot endure, permanently half slave and half free.”-- Abraham Lincoln, 1858

  31. Sectionalism: 1856-1860 • In 1859, abolitionist John Brownled an unsuccessful raid on a federal armory at Harper’s Ferry, VA in an attempt to free slaves in a massive slave uprising • Brown was caught & executed • But he was seen as a martyr by many in the North • Southerners believed Northerners were using violence to end slavery

  32. An Ill-fated Raid Raid on Harpers Ferry • October 1859 • John Brown / 20 men (5 African Americans) capture Federal Armory [Harpers Ferry, Virginia (now WV)] Goal: arm slaves / promote a slave rebellion “One man and God can overturn the universe.” -- John Brown

  33. The Verdict • Guilty! “Now, if it is deemed necessary that I should forfeit my life for the furtherance of the ends of justice, and mingle my blood further with the blood of my children and with the blood of millions in this slave country whose rights are disregarded by wicked, cruel, and unjust enactments -- I submit; so let it be done.” -- John Brown

  34. A Prediction? John Brown left a haunting note to be read after his execution: “I, John Brown, am now quite certain that the crimes of this guilty land will never be purged away but with Blood. I had as I now think vainly flattered myself that without much bloodshed, it might be done.” Result: 1. South grew less inclined to negotiate and talk peace 2. South began to form militias to protect itself from possible slave insurrections

  35. Republicans nominated Abraham Lincoln who argued for “free soil”& a strong national gov’t Sectionalism: 1856-1860 Northern Democrats nominated Stephen Douglas who argued for popular sovereignty • The Election of 1860 proved to be the final straw for the South: Southern Democrats nominated John Breckenridge who argued for states rights & the protection of slavery Democrats in the North & South were split over the issue of slavery

  36. Lincoln won the election without a single Southern vote Sectionalism: 1856 - 1860 Southerners assumed slavery would soon be abolished & began to discuss the possibility of seceding (breaking away) from the USA

  37. Sectionalism: 1856-1860 In December 1860, South Carolinabecame the first state to secede from the Union In 1861, more Southern states seceded & the Civil Warbetween North & South began

  38. Sectionalism: 1856-1860 • From 1856 to 1860, sectionalism in America increased due to: • Slavery became the most important political issue of the time • Growing Southern fears that the North would end slavery (John Brown’s raid, election of Lincoln) • No compromises could prevent a Civil War between the North & South

  39. Advantages Confederacy Outstanding generals Strong military tradition Strong motivation Fighting on home ground Skilled with guns and horses Cotton could be exchanged for supplies Union Superior leadership of Lincoln Larger population Military power Industrial power Greater wealth More railroads Controlled shipping

  40. Secession & the Outbreak of the Civil War

  41. Essential Question: • What factors led to the outbreak of the Civil War & contributed to Confederate successes from 1861 to 1863?

  42. Secession in the South • Lincoln’s election led to secession by 7 states in the Deep South but that did not necessarily mean “civil war” • Two things had to happen first: • One last failed attempt to reconcile the North & South • The North had to use its military to protect the Union The failed Crittenden Compromise in 1860 Fort Sumter, South Carolina

  43. The Upper South did not view Lincoln’s election as a death sentence & did not secede immediately Some Northerners thought the U.S. would be better off if the South was allowed to peacefully secede SC seceded on Dec 20,1860 The entire Deep South seceded by Feb 1861 “Lame duck” Buchanan took no action to stop the South from seceding

  44. The Decision to Secede

  45. What is the “United States”? • The Southern decision to secede was based on old arguments: • The USA was a “compact between states,” not a national gov’t “above the states” • Therefore, states could leave the Union freely & peacefully • States’ rights must be protected as a guarantee of liberty Individuals have the right to own property (slaves) & have the right to have their property returned (Fugitive Slave Law) Southerners had threatened secession during a Congressional debate over slavery in 1790, the Missouri Crisis of 1820, the Nullification Crisis of 1832, & the crisis over California in 1850

  46. Secession & the Formation of the Confederate States of America The CSA constitution resembled the U.S., but with 4 key changes: (1) it protected states’ rights, (2) guaranteed slavery, (3) referenced God, & (4) prohibited protective tariffs On Feb 4, 1861, the Confederate States of America were formed Mississippi Senator Jefferson Davis was elected CSA president

  47. The Deep South Secedes • Moderate Republicans proposed the Crittenden Compromise to lure the South back into the Union: • offered to extend the Missouri Compromise line to the Pacific • promised a Constitutional amendment to protect slavery • Both Lincoln & Davis rejected the compromise leaving the North with 2 choices… Lincoln rejected it because he was committed to free soil The South rejected it because they had created a new nation • Allow for peaceful separation…OR… • fight to preserve the Union

  48. Fort Sumter, South Carolina In April 1861, a skirmish at Fort Sumter, SC led to the 1st shots fired of the Civil War