APES • Get out Ch. 13 Notes
Meat Production and Consumption Have Grown Steadily • Animals for meat raised in • Pastures and rangelands • Feedlots • Meat production increased fourfold between 1961 and 2007 • Increased demand for grain • Demand is expected to go higher
Kilograms of grain needed per kilogram of body weight Beef cattle 7 Pigs 4 Chicken 2.2 Fish (catfish or carp) 2 How is meat produced? • Feedlots • Account for 40% of the world’s meat production • Open grazing • 80% of cattle, sheep and goats are raised on rangeland
Producing Meat • Rangeland • Too dry • Too steeply sloped • Too infertile… to grow crops • 40% of ice-free land area • Pastures • Managed grasslands or enclosed meadows
How can we increase livestock yields? hormone and antibiotic injections. European Union (EU) banned use due to health concerns BUT US/Canada still use practice
Producing More Meat • Condition of the world’s rangelands • Environmental Consequences of meat produciton • See connections page 299 (13th edition) • Read Spotlight page 300 (13th edition) • DECLINING!
Industrialized Meat Production Fig. 12-8, p. 287
What is rBGH? • Recombinant bovine growth hormone (rBGH) • synthetic (man-made) hormone • marketed to dairy farmers to increase milk production in cows. • used in the United States since it was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1993, but its use is not permitted in the European Union, Canada, and some other countries.
Rangelands & Overgrazing • What are rangelands? • Grassland ecosystems used to support livestock • Livestock eat shoots of plants (for food)& leave root system intact • CAN lead to overgrazing
Overgrazing: • Organisms exceed carrying capacity • Increase soil erosion • Increase soil compaction • Desertification conditions
Can lead to undergrazing • Likely in more arid areas, reduces net productivity as it does not stimulate growth
Overgrazing can lead to land degradation & eventual desertification Degradation Desertification Loss of topsoil Reduce Biodiversity Change Ecosystem Leads to desert like conditions • Loss of topsoil • Reduce Biodiversity • Loss Fertility • Loss nutrients * Can be remediated to previous conditions
How do we protect grasslands for livestock production? Rangeland Management – works to control number of grazing animals as to not exceed carrying capacity