Download
sensory thresholds n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Sensory Thresholds PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Sensory Thresholds

Sensory Thresholds

380 Vues Download Presentation
Télécharger la présentation

Sensory Thresholds

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Sensory Thresholds • Absolute Thresholds - The minimum amount of energy that can be detected 50% of the time • Taste: 1 gram (.0356 ounce) of table salt in 500 liters (529 quarts) of water • Smell: 1 drop of perfume diffused throughout a three-room apartment • Touch: the wing of a bee falling on your cheek from a height of 1cm (.39 inch) • Hearing: the tick of a watch from 6 meters (20 feet) in very quiet conditions • Vision: a candle flame seen from 50km (30 miles) on a clear, dark night

  2. Subliminal Threshold Subliminal Threshold: When energy of the stimulus is below one’s absolute threshold for conscious awareness. Kurt Scholz/ Superstock

  3. Subliminal Perception Sensation without perception? • Subliminal = stimuli that sensory system responds to, but due to short duration or subtle form, don’t reach threshold of cognition Quick Survey • Do you think you are influenced by subliminal messages in advertising? • Do you think you are influenced by everyday advertisements that you perceive consciously (e.g. laundry detergent, beverages)?

  4. Suppose you had a choice to listen to one of two speeches that argued against a position you believe in, such as whether marijuana should be legalized. In speech A, the person presents arguments against your position; in speech B, all arguments are presented subliminally. Which speech would you rather listen to?

  5. 80% college students preferred not to receive a subliminal message b/c they thought it might influence them in an undesirable way. • 69% chose speech A; 31% chose B (subliminal) • Why are people afraid? Should you be?

  6. …You Decide Could 1/30th of a second really influence impressions of Al Gore?

  7. …You Decide Could 1/30th of a second really influence impressions of Al Gore?

  8. We are not obedient to Subliminal Messages • Research shows that the effect only occurs in controlled laboratory studies • Competitive Participants • More critical • ‘Comfort’ Words • Research outside the laboratory shows no significant effect of subliminal information • We don’t blindly obey! • Placebo Effect with subliminal self help tapes

  9. EAT POPCORN

  10. Vicary’s Study • New Jersey, 1957: • Over 6 weeks, 45,699 people see subliminal ads • “Eat Popcorn” – sales up 57.5% • “Drink Coke” – sales up18.1% • “Minds have been broken and entered”

  11. Except . . . . • The Vicary “Eat Popcorn/Drink Coke” Study well. . . . • In a 1962 interview, Vicary admitted that he had made the whole thing up!

  12. Backmasking • A recording studio technique where backward messages are deliberately superimposed on the soundtrack • The fear . . . “Human brains are capable of receiving, scanning, deciphering, storing and later reacting to subliminal or subconscious messages”

  13. Another One Bites the Dust • Forward • Reverse • "It's fun to smoke marijuana"

  14. Stairway to Heaven • Forward • Reverse • ""Glory glory to my sweet Satan, there was a little child born, it makes me sad, whose power is Satan"

  15. The most famous backmasking ever? • Forward • Reverse • Message - "Paul is a dead man, miss him, miss him, MISS HIM" The Beatles have vehemently denied this. Still fans of every generation have listened to this message and heard the same words.

  16. Twinkle Twinkle Little Star • Forward • Reverse • "I wish there were no Allah."

  17. Pokemon Rap • Forward • Reverse • "I love satan, love satan. I love satan, love satan." • http://www.backmaskonline.com/pop.html

  18. Not the last of it… • Sexual imagery in ads? • Wilson Bryan Key: “sex” in ice cubes, nude figures in images from butter to icing in cake mix ads. • Even if images aren’t consciously perceived, they put us in good mood and pay more attention to ad

  19. Why? • Vokey and Read 1985 • More dramatically, propose how and why listeners may “hear” diabolical messages in rock music. Listeners are prepared to “discover” certain messages, and they do so. • Perceptual set is a bias or readiness to perceive certain aspects of available sensory data and to ignore others.

  20. Extrasensory Perception • Refers to extraordinary perception such as • Clairvoyance – awareness of an unknown object or event • Telepathy – knowledge of someone else’s thoughts or feelings • Precognition – foreknowledge of future events • Research has been unable to conclusively demonstrate the existence of ESP

  21. Ganzfeld Procedure • Bem & Honorton, 1994 • All sensory information reduced • “receiver” in reclining chair in sound proof chamber with ping-pong balls, red light, earphones, white noise • In Separate room, “sender” concentrates on visual stimuli • 32% hit rate better than chance • Has not been replicated • Experimentation has not yet given scientific support

  22. Expert Groups • Eye Structure / Receptor Cells – (Diagram and Blind Spot and Peripheral Demo) • From Eye To Brain – (Diagram) • Color Vision – After Image Effect