H2Oh!: Classroom Demonstrations and Activities for Improving Student Learning of Water Concepts A. Chan Hilton1 , R.M. Neupauer2, S.J. Burian3, J.W. Lauer4, P.P. Mathisen5, D.C. Mays6, M.S. Olsen7, C.A. Pomeroy3, B.L. Ruddell8, and A. Sciortino9 1Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL; 2 University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO (firstname.lastname@example.org); 3University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT; 4Seattle University, Seattle, WA; 5Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, MA; 6University of Colorado Denver, Denver, CO; 7Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA; 8Arizona State University, Mesa, AZ; 9California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA Bernoulli Principle and Orifice Jet Three-Reservoir Problem For this demonstration, an open tank is constructed out of Plexiglass and a small orifice is drilled near the bottom. Prior to class, the orifice is sealed with tape, and the tank is placed on a table and filled with water to a known height. During class, students use the Bernoulli equation and knowledge of physics and dynamics to calculate the distance a water jet emanating from the orifice will travel before reaching the ground. This distance is marked on the floor. The instructor or a volunteer lies on the floor between the table and the mark, then the tape is removed from the orifice, and the jet flows. Because of friction, the jet does not travel as far as was predicted, and the instructor or volunteer gets soaked. For this demonstration, three plastic containers placed at different elevations are used to represent reservoirs. Plastic tubing representing pipes connects the reservoirs to a common junction. When the three containers are filled with water, water will flow out of the upper container and into the lower container, but whether water flows into or out of the middle container depends on the elevations of the water levels in the containers and the friction losses in the tubing. In this demonstration, students can explore situations that lead to water flow into or out of the middle container. Introduction • Studies have shown that: • students learn more and enjoy classes more when their preferred learning styles match the teaching style of the instructor (Packer and Bain 1978; Renninger and Snyder 1983) • most college-aged students prefer visual modes of learning (Barbe and Milone 1981) • most instruction is conducted in a lecture, or auditory, format (Felder and Silverman 1988). • Classroom demonstrations and activities provide opportunities for incorporating visual learning into the typical classroom environment. H2Oh!: Classroom Demonstrations for Water Concepts (H2Oh!, 2013) was created to help instructors incorporate demonstrations and activities into water-related classes. This poster shows several examples of demonstrations and activities from this book. Items Table of Contents • Collection of 45 classroom demonstrations and activities for use in water-related classes. • Brief demonstrations and activities (most are < 20 minutes) that can be easily incorporated into classroom lectures. These are not full lab exercises. • Easy to Use: • Guidance on preparing and conducting the demonstration and a brief overview of the principles that are demonstrated. • Information on the target audience level, availability of the materials, typical preparation time, and average duration of the activity in the classroom is provided. • Target audience: Instructors of undergraduate water-related courses in engineering and geology. Activities may be adapted for middle and high school students as well as graduate students. • Available at www.asce.org/bookstore. Soft Cover: ISBN 978-0-7844-1254-1; E-Book: ISBN 978-0-7844-7702-1 About This Book Items in red are shown in this poster. 2 Fluid Mechanics Fluid Properties 2.1 What is a fluid? 2.2 Viscosity 2.3 Shear-thinning and thickening 2.4 Continuum/fluid density 2.5 Surface Tension 2.6 Reynolds number Buoyancy and Stability • 2.7 Modeling clay bowls • 2.8 Buoyancy and toy boat • 2.9 Bubbles in Guinness Hydrostatic Pressure and Forces 2.10 Piezometers and pressure 2.11 Pressure of a static fluid 2.12 Pressure forces on submerged planes 2.13 Pressure force vs. weight of a fluid Bernoulli Principle and Bernoulli Equation • 2.14 Straws/cups • 2.15 Suspending a ping-pong ball in an air jet • 2.16 Gravitational and pressure potential energy • 2.17 Bernoulli principle and orifice jet • 2.18 Energy grade line, hydraulic grade line, negative • pressure via siphon • 2.19 Draining tank - energy grade line Conservation Principles 2.20 Hose-end sprayer 2.21 Conservation principles for squirt guns 2.22 Bottle rocket 2.23 Lawn sprinklers 3 Hydraulics • 3.1 Soaker hose - pipe friction losses • 3.2 Pipes in series • 3.3 Pipes in parallel • 3.4 Three-reservoir problem 4 Surface Water • 4.1 Atmospheric water • 4.2 Rainfall and runoff • 4.3 Isohyetalmethod for precipitation analysis • 4.4 Linear reservoirs, unit hydrographs & river routing • 4.5 Watershed definition and delineation • 4.6 Flood frequency analysis - Battle of the Rivers 5 Groundwater 5.1 Porosity 5.2 Specific retention 5.3 Layered hydraulic conductivity 5.4 Flow direction in an anisotropic porous medium 5.5 Well hydraulics with groundwater flow model 5.6 Molecular diffusion in a porous medium 5.7 Groundwater contaminant transport 5.8 NAPL ganglia 6 Water Quality 6.1 BOD and remaining BOD concepts 6.2 Pond water quality 6.3 Suspended sediment analysis Rainfall and Runoff For this activity, students work in small groups to conduct experiments using a “watershed” constructed of a pan, sponge, and sandpaper. This activity illustrates the relationship between rainfall, runoff and infiltration. Students should be familiar with the concepts of runoff and infiltration, and the components of a hydrograph. Suspended Sediment Analysis Porosity In this activity, students use simple techniques for determining suspended solids concentrations. The activity involves filtering water samples, quantifying water volumes and associated solid masses that end up on the filters, and using this data to estimate suspended solids concentrations. To avoid more complicated filtering systems and illustrate the basic concept, a simple approach with a handheld funnel is used. The dry weight of material that ends up on the filter for a given filter volume is used to estimate the suspended solids concentration. The sample collection and solids analysis procedures must be completed carefully to avoid errors that could affect the accuracy of results. This activity introduces students to the basic analysis approach and illustrate some accuracy and error considerations that may affect results for suspended solids and other water quality analyses. In this demonstration, the concept of porosity is illustrated using cereal as a porous medium and milk at the pore fluid. Cereal is poured into a measuring cup. Then a known volume of milk is added and fills the pore space. Using this volume as the pore volume, and reading the total saturated volume from the measuring cup, students can calculate porosity of the cereal. The straw represents a groundwater well, which can be used to demonstrate hydraulic head changes resulting from extraction of pore fluid. References Barbe, W. B. and Milone, M. N. (1981). “What we know about modality strengths.” Educ. Leadersh., 38, 378–380. Felder, R. and Silverman, L. (1988). “Learning and teaching styles in engineering education.” Engr. Educ., 78, 674–681. H2Oh!: Classroom Demonstrations for Water Concepts, (2013). A.B. Chan Hilton and R.M. Neupauer, eds., American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA. Packer, J., and Bain, J. D. (1978). “Cognitive styles and teacher-student compatibility.” J. Educ. Psychol., 70, 864–871. Renninger, K. A. and Snyder, S. S. (1983). “Effects of cognitive style on perceived satisfaction and performance among students and teachers.” J. Educ. Psychol., 75, 668–676.