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  1. UNIT Unit-4 • Teaching Aim • Reading I • Reading II • Extended Activities

  2. Teaching Aim Teaching Aim Unit 4 Jobs and Occupations 1. Cognitive Information (认知信息): Jobs and Occupations 2. Language Focus (内容重点) — Key Words: I. trait, initiative, personality, realm, inherit, bestow, disloyal, quit, loyalty, recipient, patron, job security, job hopping, mobility, qualify, root, personnel, challenge, seniority, bounce; II. transition, academic, depressing, recession, flight slot, redundancy, leave, participate, job sharing scheme, crisis, volunteer, recruit

  3. Teaching Aim Teaching Aim Unit 4 Jobs and Occupations — Phrases: I. get ahead, on the basis of, lead to, move upwards, by and large, better oneself, deal with, bring in, back and forth; II. take (time) off, cut back on, take off, take advantage of, from scratch, be on the dole, better off, take on, be on offer — Word Study: involve, content, advance, present, initiative — Useful Structures: keep doing sth. as if the best of sth. jump at the chance to do sth. (be) faced with — Vocabulary: Words of Job Application

  4. Teaching Aim Teaching Aim Unit 4 Jobs and Occupations • 3. Communicative Skills (交际技能) • — Expressions: Describing One’s Occupation • — Reading: Job Advertisements • 4. Phonetic Review (语音复习): Closing Diphthongs

  5. Reading I UNIT Reading I Unit 4 Jobs and Occupations • Pre-reading • Text • Background Information • New Words and Expressions • Exercises • Post-reading

  6. Pre-reading Pre-reading Unit 4 Jobs and Occupations • Pre-reading I • Pre-reading II

  7. Pre-reading I Pre-reading-I Unit 4 Jobs and Occupations I. Brainstorming: Work with your partner and list things that people may consider in choosing their jobs. An Ideal Job=Job Security+Good Pay+ _______ +_______+_______ _______ +_______+_______ _______ +_______... KEY

  8. Pre-reading II Pre-reading-II Unit 4 Jobs and Occupations II. Pairwork: Discuss the following questions with your partner. 1. What is important for you in a job? And why? 2. Which job do you like to take, a well-paid job you dislike or a poorly paid job you enjoy? 3. Do you prefer to be an employer or an employee?

  9. Text Text-1 Unit 4 Jobs and Occupations Personal Progress and Job-hopping 1. In many parts of the world, personal influence is almost essential in getting ahead获得成功. One needs a “godfather”, a “sponsor”. Here that is not true. Naturally all people use influence sometimes, but one rarely advances far(进步)on that basis alone in the United States. Here traits特性which lead to success are generally considered to be the willingness乐意to work hard (at any kind of job), scholarship学问or skill, initiative首创精神, an agreeable (happy) and outgoing外向活泼 personality个性. In other words, even in the realm of(在…领域)personal progress, this is a “do-it-yourself” society. By and large(总的来说), success is neither inherited nor bestowed(继承和赠与).This means, therefore, that our employment practices(雇佣惯例)are different from those in many other countries.

  10. Text Text-2 Unit 4 Jobs and Occupations 2. In some nations it is considered disloyal to quit a job; deep reciprocal loyalties(相互忠诚)exist between employee and employer (“recipient” and “patron” in many cases(在许多情况下); lifelong终身的 job security(工作保障)and family honor are frequently involved.

  11. Text Text-3 Unit 4 Jobs and Occupations 3. This is not true in the United States. “Job-hopping” is part of our constant mobility(不断流动). We consider it a “right” to be able to better ourselves完善自己, to move upward升职,提拔, to jump from company to company if we can keep qualifying for(保持晋级状态) more responsible (and therefore better) jobs.

  12. Text Text-4 Unit 4 Jobs and Occupations 4. This interchangeability(可交换性) of personnel seems unreasonable to some members of foreign nations. Where are our roots? How can we be so cold and inhuman? “We act,表现” some say, “as if we were dealing with machines, not humans.” They do not understand that a great many Americans like to move about. New jobs present new challenges, new opportunities, new friends, and new experiences — often a new part of the country.

  13. Text Text-5 Unit 4 Jobs and Occupations 5. The employer may be quite ‘content (满意)too. Perhaps he has had the best of that man’s thinking(got the best ideas from the man); a new person may bring in(introduce) fresh ideas, improved skills, or new abilities. Then, too, a newcomer will probably start at a lower salary for he will have no seniority(资力). Hopping is so readily (easily) accepted here, in fact, that a good man may bounce反弹 back and forth来回的 among two or three corporations, being welcomed back to his original company more than once through his career, each time at a different level.

  14. Background Information Background Information Unit 4 Jobs and Occupations 1. Words related to jobs and occupations: please refer to the notes for Special Use: Words of Job Application in this unit.

  15. Background Information Background Information Unit 4 Jobs and Occupations 2. Job-hunting techniques It’s easy to talk about all the nice things you desire in a job offer, but it’s far from easy to land yourself on a job which is not very desirable, especially for a young man without much work experience and social connections. The following tips may be helpful for young jobseekers: ● Chances of getting a job are better with smaller companies than with large ones. ● Do homework on yourself. Identify your skills in great detail, and in priority. ● Research your potential employer. Find out all you can about the organization.

  16. Background Information Background Information Unit 4 Jobs and Occupations ● Be persistent(持久). Keep at the job hunt — make return visits. ● Investigate many different organizations or businesses for job openings. Don’t limit yourself to one type of organization. ● Don’t “put all of your eggs in one basket” — such as relying only on relatives, just sending out resumes, or just applying to your first employer choice. ● Determine what makes you better at the job you are after than other people. ● Get as many other people helping you look for a job as possible: friends, relatives, coworkers, professionals, and so on. ● Look as sharp as possible. Be clean, well-dressed and alert. ● No one “owes” you a job. It’s up to you to “win” a job by showing a potential employer you have the right attitude and skill.

  17. Background Information Background Information Unit 4 Jobs and Occupations Unit 4 Jobs and Occupations 3. Looking for job vacancies(空缺) Before beginning a search for a job, you will need to think about the types of vacancies you are hoping to find. If you think in terms of broad job areas, rather than specific job titles this will give you wider opportunities and more possible vacancies as employers often use different titles for similar jobs. You should consider temporary and part-time work as this could give you experience, is good for your CV, and will provide the chance to make contacts that may know about other jobs. Some temporary jobs(临时性的)may also become ’permanent. If you are looking for a vacancy, you may try:

  18. Background Information Background Information Unit 4 Jobs and Occupations Unit 4 Jobs and Occupations 1) Careers Center: Employers may advertise their vacancies here for young people. For some jobs, careers officers may be able to telephone on your behalf to arrange interviews. Careers officers also offer a counseling and advice service for young people and help in finding training places or jobs. 2) Local/National newspaper/Radio/TV advertisements 3) Internet: There are many job search websites. Some have search facilities allowing you to search on geographical area, by wage/salary and so on. Recruitment agencies also advertise on websites and some allow jobseekers to register on there as well.

  19. Background Information Background Information Unit 4 Jobs and Occupations Unit 4 Jobs and Occupations 4) Journals/Trade Magazines: Specialist journals published by professional bodies or trade organizations may advertise jobs. These may come out monthly or quarterly and feature adverts on a national basis. 5) On their own premises: Some employers advertise their vacancies outside their premises on notice boards or signs. 6) Private employment agencies/ Recruitment agencies: These match job seekers with employers’ vacancies. Agencies display adverts in their shop windows and/or display boards for public access. They will also contact people registered with them when vacancies arise. Many vacancies are never advertised. Tapping into this pool of vacancies involves making speculative approaches. This means contacting employers just in case they have a suitable vacancy or a

  20. Background Information Background Information Unit 4 Jobs and Occupations Unit 4 Jobs and Occupations vacancy coming up. It is likely that you will suffer a number of setbacks and disappointments with this method, as many of your approaches will be rejected. It is still worthwhile investing your time even if there are rejections and you should consider these types of speculative approaches: ● Going to the employers’ premises in person to ask if there are any vacancies. Take copies of your CV with you to leave if there are no current vacancies. ● Ringing up to ask whether there are any vacancies with speculative telephone calls. ● Sending your CV with a covering letter introducing yourself and what you have to offer.

  21. Background Information Background Information Unit 4 Jobs and Occupations Unit 4 Jobs and Occupations 4. Job hopping Not all employers will interpret a resume filled with many jobs the same way. How well or badly your job-hopping is taken depends on a number of factors. Think about these factors before your next interview. ● What market are you in? In some high-powered cities, having a series of jobs of less than two years is not necessarily seen as a bad thing — it is seen as a mark of an ambitious person who is constantly moving forward. In addition, some industries, like politics and consulting, are prone to frequent job movement.

  22. Background Information Background Information Unit 4 Jobs and Occupations Unit 4 Jobs and Occupations ● Are you moving up? Job-hopping is fine if there is a clear pattern of increasing responsibility. Employers tend to be sympathetic to a quest for greater responsibility. A lateral move can also be explained as exploring other careers or gaining relevant experience that would have been unavailable otherwise. ● How old are you? Most employers expect a certain amount of career exploration from recent grads. But the higher you go in your profession, and the more investment the company has to make in you, the less likely they are to want to invest in someone who they think will leave in a year.

  23. New Words and Expressions New Words and Expressions Unit 4 Jobs and Occupations • New Words and Expressions • Notes • Language and Culture Focus

  24. New Words and Expressions New Words and Expressions Unit 4 Jobs and Occupations 1. hopv. to move by jumping 跳过 2. influencen. an effect on someone or something without the use of direct force or command 影响 3. essentiala. extremely important 必要的 4. godfathern. a man who sponsors a person at baptism 教父 5. sponsorn. a person who agrees to pay someone money; a financial backer 赞助人 6. traitn. a particular quality, esp. of a person; characteristic (人的) 品质;特性

  25. New Words and Expressions New Words and Expressions Unit 4 Jobs and Occupations 7. scholarshipn. the systematized knowledge of a learned man 学识 8. initiativen. the ability to think and act without being urged 主动性 9. agreeablea. pleasing, giving pleasure 令人愉快的 10. outgoinga. friendly and sociable 外向的 11. personalityn. the whole nature or character of a particular person 个性;性格 12. realmn. the field of activity or interest; sphere (活动或兴趣) 领域

  26. New Words and Expressions New Words and Expressions Unit 4 Jobs and Occupations 13. inheritv. to receive (property, title, etc.) as a result of the death of the previous owner 继承(财产、头衔等) 14. bestowv. to present (sth.) as a gift; to confer 赠与 15. disloyala. not loyal, unfaithful 不忠诚的 16. reciprocala. given and received in return; mutual 互相给予的;互惠的 17. loyaltyn. being true and faithful 忠诚 18. recipientn. a person who receives something 接受者

  27. New Words and Expressions New Words and Expressions Unit 4 Jobs and Occupations 19. patronn. a person who gives money or other support to a person, cause, activity, etc. 资助人 20. lifelonga. extending throughout one’s life 终生的 21. securityn. safety from possible harm or loss 安全;保障 22. constanta. continually happening or repeated; regular 不断的;连续发生的 23. mobilityn. the quality of being able to move or to be moved quickly and easily 流动性;机动性 24. betterv. to improve 改善

  28. New Words and Expressions New Words and Expressions Unit 4 Jobs and Occupations 25. qualifyv. to (cause to) reach a necessary standard, e.g. of knowledge, ability or performance (使)具有/取得资格 26. interchangeabilityn. being able to exchange or alternate each other 可互换性 27. personneln. employees, staff [总称]人员;员工 28. inhumana. lacking normal human qualities of kindness 无人性的

  29. New Words and Expressions New Words and Expressions Unit 4 Jobs and Occupations 29. challengen. a difficult, demanding or stimulating task 有激励性的任务;挑战 30. contenta. satisfied with what one has; happy 满意的 31. seniorityn. official advantage coming from the length of one’s service in an organization 资历; 年资 32. bouncev. to spring back or up again 弹回 33. originala. initial 起初的

  30. New Words and Expressions New Words and Expressions Unit 4 Jobs and Occupations 1. get ahead to progress (beyond sb.) 领先;出人头地 2. on the basis of based on; according to 在……基础上;根据 3. lead to to have something as its result 导致 4. by and large on the whole 大体上;总的说来 5. move upward to rise in rank 升职;升迁 6. deal with to attend to (a problem, task) 处理;安排 7. be content with to be satisfied with 满意 8. bring in tointroduce 引进,引入 9. back and forth from one place to another and back again repeatedly 来回地

  31. Notes Notes Unit 4 Jobs and Occupations 1. job-hopping: the practice of moving from job to job. 2. do-it-yourself society: a society in which you should do things yourself, and depend on yourself. (abb. DIY) 3. One needs a “godfather”, a “sponsor”: One needs someone to support economically and help him/her move forward in society. 4. recipient and patron: the person who takes the job, and the person who offers the job opportunity. 5. keep qualifying: to remain in ability to be suited for. 6. move about: to travel from place to place.

  32. Exercises 1-Exercises Unit 4 Jobs and Occupations • Exercise I • Exercise II • Exercise III • Exercise IV • Exercise V • Exercise VI

  33. Exercise I 1-Exercise-I Unit 4 Jobs and Occupations I. Read the text carefully again and discuss the following questions. 1. What is of great importance in personal progress in many parts of the world? 2. What does “godfather” mean in paragraph 1? 3. What are the traits leading to success in the United States? 4. What do people in some nations think of job-quitting? 5. What can be said about the relationship between employer and employee in some countries? 6. What is thought to be part of American mobility? 7. What seems unreasonable to some foreigners but quite OK to Americans? 8. Why do Americans think they are justified in jumping from company to company? 9. Why do many Americans like to move about? 10. Why will a newcomer probably start at a lower salary?

  34. Exercise II 1-Exercise-II Unit 4 Jobs and Occupations II. Choose the best answer to each of the following questions. ( ) 1. What is the passage mainly about? a. The way to success in the U.S.A. b. Personal influence in job-hopping. c. How Americans see job-hopping. d. Personal progress and job-hopping. ( ) 2. What is considered important in personal advancement in America? a. Mobility. b. Character. c. Personal influence. d. Family background. c b

  35. Exercise II 1-Exercise-II Unit 4 Jobs and Occupations ( ) 3. Which statement about Americans is NOT true according to the text? a. Americans prefer “do-it-yourself”. b. Americans like to be on the move. c. Americans admire self-made people. d. Americans consider it dishonorable to job-hop. ( ) 4. Which of the following is NOT the reason why the employer has no objection to job-hopping? a. A new person may bring in new ideas. b. A newcomer will start at a lower salary. c. The employer can learn who is disloyal to the company. d. The employer has used the employees thinking to the full. d c

  36. Exercise II 1-Exercise-II Unit 4 Jobs and Occupations ( ) 5. What can we infer from this text? a. Americans impress us on the whole as being cold and deficient in emotional warmth. b. Americans consider it quite acceptable to job-hop for new challenges and new opportunities. c. You will be labeled as an incapable employee if you go back to work for the original company again. d. Employees are encouraged to jump from company to company to bring fresh ideas and new skills to their new employers. b

  37. Exercise III 1-Exercise-III Unit 4 Jobs and Occupations III. Give the English words or phrases according to the meanings provided. personality 1. ___________ the whole nature or character of a person 2. ___________ a person who takes responsibility for someone or something 3. ___________ the quality of being able to move easily and quickly 4. ___________ employee, staff 5. ___________ first, initial 6. ___________ a difficult or stimulating task 7. ___________ to present something as a gift 8. ___________ to spring back, move 9. ___________ friendly and sociable 10. ___________ given and received in return; mutual sponsor mobility personnel original challenge bestow bounce outgoing reciprocal

  38. Exercise IV 1-Exercise-IV Unit 4 Jobs and Occupations IV. Put the following words or expressions from the text in the blanks to complete the sentences. Make changes where necessary. better oneself lead to move upward get ahead on the basis of content with challenge deal with seniority do it yourself 1. Between 1990 and 1992, there were more than 1, 000 mergers(两个以上的企业或公司的合并) in that industry — all of which __________ job losses. 2. Friends eyed 关注 each other all the time, not exactly with envy, but with care to see who __________. 3. Overcoming a natural resistance抵抗 to change is __________ faced by many companies that want to progress. led to got ahead a challenge

  39. Exercise IV 1-Exercise-V Unit 4 Jobs and Occupations 4. Wilson’s speeches often praise the early immigrants who took risks and endured hardships __________________ and their families. 5. Most employers require employees to have a high school diploma or equivalent相等的even when they qualify __________________ experience. 6. Hard working and right training are the necessary factors for clerks __________________ . 7. People should be promoted and rewarded on merit优点, not ____________ . 8. One should know the fact that not everyone has real talent for __________________ . 9. The best way ________________problems such as these is to respect the experience of the individuals and understand their goals. 10. Some white collars are not __________________ the way they spend their holiday time. to better themselves on the basis of to move upward seniority do- it- yourself to deal with content with

  40. Exercise V 1-Exercise-V Unit 4 Jobs and Occupations V. Rewrite the following sentences and replace the underlined words with appropriate words or phrases from the text. 1. One of his qualitiesis criticizing his wife in public. __________________________________________________________ 2. I’ve found he’s easiest to get on with among the colleagues. __________________________________________________________ 3. If I don’t get a pay rise, I’ll leave. __________________________________________________________ One of his traits is criticizing his wife in public. I’ve found he’s most agreeable among colleagues. If I don’t get a pay rise, I’ll quit.

  41. Exercise V 1-Exercise-V Unit 4 Jobs and Occupations 4. Reducing the gap between the rich and the poor is one of the difficult tasks facing the government. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. He’s never been a friendly and sociable person. __________________________________________________________ 6. Generally speaking, the company’s been doing pretty good business. __________________________________________________________ Reducing the gap between the rich and the poor is one of the challenges facing the government. He’s never been an outgoing type. By and large, the company’s been doing pretty good business.

  42. Exercise VI 1-Exercise-VI Unit 4 Jobs and Occupations VI. Word study: For each of the following clues, use the given prompts to produce sentences in the same way as shown in the model. 1.Prompt: good/manager/try/involve (v.)/everyone/decision-making/process Model: A good manager will try to involve everyone in the decision-making process. a. run/own/business/usual/involve (v.)/work/long hours b. department store/ensure/every/situation/solve/quick/easy/minimal/ customer/ involve (n.) c. on-the-job/train/involve (v.)/manager/learn/manage/local/bureau Key: a. Running your own business usually involves working long hours. b. The department store ensures that every situation be solved quickly and easily, with minimal customer involvement. c. On-the-job training will involve the manager in learning about managing a local bureau.

  43. Exercise VI 1-Exercise-VI Unit 4 Jobs and Occupations 2. Prompt: Not/content (a.)/new/car/ Selina/want/bike/trips/city centre Model: Not content with her new car, Selina now wants a bike for trips into the city centre. a. he/rarely/talk/own/work/content (a.)/listen/experience/others b. each/group/guess/content (n.) /box/teacher/open/show/content (n.) c. new/content (n.)/pages/provide/detail/project/increase/quantity/ range/information Key: a. He rarely talked about his own work, and was content to listen to the experiences of others. b. After each group guesses the contents of a box, the teacher opens it and shows the contents. c. The new contents pages provide the details of a project to increase the quantity and range of information.

  44. Exercise VI 1-Exercise-VI Unit 4 Jobs and Occupations 3. Prompt: understanding/human/genetics/advance (v.) considerably/ten years Model: Our understanding of human genetics has advanced considerably over the last ten years. a. advance (n.)/medical/science/make/possible/people/live/150 year b. I/advance (v.)/ranks/hold/responsible/middle-management position c. admission/free/all/ticket holder/no/need/book/advance (n.) Key: a. Advances in medical science may make it possible for people to live for 150 years. b. I had advanced through the ranks and held a responsible middle-management position. c. Admission is free to all ticket holders and there is no need to book in advance.

  45. Exercise VI 1-Exercise-VI Unit 4 Jobs and Occupations 4. Prompt: we/give/you/reasonable/time/prepare/present (v.)/proposals Model: We shall give you reasonable time to prepare and present your proposals. a. book/detail/history/France/Renaissance(文艺复兴时期)/ present (a.) b. we/present (v.)/number/plans/will/careful/consideration/all/them c. Jim/arrive/home/work/Della/tell/what/she/do/buy/birthday/present (n.) Key: a. The book details the history of France from the Renaissance to the present. b. We have been presented with a number of plans and will give careful consideration to all of them. c. When Jim arrived home from work, Della told him what she had done to buy his birthday present.

  46. Exercise VI 1-Exercise-VI Unit 4 Jobs and Occupations 5. Prompt: admit/ subordinates(下级)/have to/initiative (n.)/ upgrade/skills Model: Admittedly, these subordinates had to show some personal initiative to upgrade their skills. a. everyone/stand/around/silence/I /initiative (n.)/try/explain/we/come b. instead / stand / there / helpless / end / performance / initiative(n.) / act quick c. face/serious/environmental/pollution/number/companies/initiate (v.) /recycle/ program Key: a. Everyone was standing around in silence, so I took the initiative and tried to explain why we had come. b. Instead of standing there helplessly until the end of the performance, seize the initiative and act quickly. c. Faced with serious environmental pollution, a large number of companies have initiated recycling programs.

  47. Post-reading Post reading Unit 4 Jobs and Occupations Discussion & Role Play: What Is Your View on Job-hopping? • Task 1: Work individually • Task 2: Work in groups • Task 3: Work in pairs

  48. Task 1: Work individually Task 1 Unit 4 Jobs and Occupations Nowadays many young people jump from company to company frequently for various reasons. List some possible reasons why people choose to job-hop in the blanks provided below. Compare your list with the lists of other students. I choose to change my job for □ more free time □ □ □

  49. Task 2: Work in groups Task 2 Unit 4 Jobs and Occupations Have you ever heard of “a rolling stone gathers no moss”? This proverb says that a person who too frequently changes his jobs or who never settles in one place will not succeed in life. What is your view on this issue? What is your opinion about the positive and negative aspects of frequent job-hopping? Pool your ideas and complete the table below. Be sure that every one in the group should make his or her contribution.

  50. Task 3: Work in pairs Task 3 Unit 4 Jobs and Occupations Suppose you work for a newspaper and are responsible for a column called JUST ASK. Here printed is a letter from a reader in a dilemma. Read the letter carefully and try to offer the reader some advice on her problem. JUST ASK Dear Sir or Madam, I’m an office clerk. Frankly, the pay of my job is good, and it’s relaxing. But I really don’t like it because I feel it’s too boring to bear. And the people around me have nothing to do every day but chat. So I can’t learn anything from work. I want to learn some real things while I’m still young, so I have decided to change jobs. But my parents were very angry when they heard this. They think I’m crazy and forbid me to change my job. What should I do? Sincerely yours, Catherine