water = weight water<weight MECHANICAL engineering solution
Figure 20.1 An overview of how bacterial plasmids are used to clone genes
Genetic engineering involves moving existing genes from one organism to another.
Synthetic biology involves constructing new genetic systems and turning cells into biological machines
A bacterial photograph Bacteria engineered to change color based on light
Or… Bacteria that can test for Arsenic in water Bacterial computers Bacteria that detect mines Yogurt that cleans teeth These are not possible by evolution
Engineered bacteria to change color based on light. Evolution didn’t do this! Engineers did… And they have…
Synthetic biology is engineering How is engineering different from science?
Synthetic Biology Standardization Abstraction Synthesis A+A+C+T+T… Genetic Engineering rDNA Sequencing PCR
Abstraction -- a term borrowed from software engineering to indicate the management of complexity inherent to biological parts and the systems made with them. Abstraction simplifies components by hiding, or "black boxing" information, facilitating their use and re-use
promoter Ribosome binding site
Device -- an engineered genetic object that produces a human-defined function under specified conditions. Devices are produced by combining one or more standard biological part
System- an engineered genetic object that produces a human-defined function under specified conditions. Systems are produced by combining one or more standard biological Device.
Standardization a series of assembly and characterization rules. In time, these standards may allow the reliable physical and functional assembly of genetic parts into devices, and devices into systems
Standard Assembly Std functional assembly???
What precisely is the problem or opportunity you are focusing on? • How clear are you on an approach to make a dent in the problem? • What if your project is fully successful? How big a difference could it make? What concerns will it raise? • What other technologies can be used/have been used to address this area? • What don't you know? How big are the gaps in what you know? How much is completely unknown or unknowable?
iTune: the test part of the paradigm • Characterizing the device • Can we tune it to the output we want? • Why would we want to do this?
We can increase or decrease the output of a gene by affecting: • The promoter • Which alters the rate of transcription • The RBS • Which alters the rate of translation
LacZ codes for Beta-Galactosidase
If given lactose Glucose Galactose ORF LacZ promoter RBS
If given ONPG Galactose o-nitrophenol, (yellow) ORF LacZ promoter RBS
Yellow color is proportional to the o-nitrophenol • Which is proportional to the amount of LacZ expression (Beta-galactosidase) • Which is controlled by the Promoter and RBS • Activity is measured in Miller units