Your Opinion The issue: Do the Southern states have the right to withdraw from the Union if they decide that being a part of it is no longer in their best interests? Or would secession and the formation of the Confederate States of America constitute a rebellion? Arguments for Secession: The federal government is instituting policies that go against the best interests of the South, such as tariffs that disproportionately hurt the South and attempts to free the slaves who work on Southern plantations. Just as the colonists had the right to declare independence from Britain nearly a century ago, the South has the right to seek its independence from the Union. Arguments against Secession: When all of the states entered the Union they essentially formed a binding compact; for that compact to be broken, all states must agree to its dissolution, not just a handful of them. Preservation of the Union is far more important than the complaints of individual states; the country would be weaker if it were divided into two. • Why did the North win the Civil War? • Superior numbers and industrial strength • Superior military strategy and leadership • Won enough decisive battles to sustain war effort and wear down the South • Lost Cause explanation- South doomed to lose even before the war begin due to North’s greater economic abilities and population
Crisis Over Slavery • Conclusion: Analysis of the sectional crisis of the 1850’s • 1) How did politicians attempt to resolve the crisis over slavery? • Attempts to address issues: • By avoiding slavery & urging sectional compromise • Resulted in… • Failure of Compromises • Attempts to legislate slavery/expansion failed • Policies and decisions that provoked polarization • 2) What happened to the national political parties? • Collapse of Whig Party • Rise of Republican Party (incorporated smaller third parties) • Split of Democratic Party- North and South faction • Ultimately sectional loyalties developed into sectional parties paving the way for Lincoln’s election in 1860
I. Sectional Crisis- 1850’s • 1. Election of 1860 • SC secedes from the Union Dec. 20, 1860
II. Irreconcilable Differences 1861 7 states seceded • Secessionist arguments • 2. Creation of the Confederacy • Jefferson Davis (Moderate) • CSA
II. Irreconcilable Differences • 3. Attempts to peacefully resolve fail • Crittenden Compromise • Fort Sumter (April 12) • First shots of war fired • Civil War: April 1861-Aprl 1865
ARMY- composed of several corps, commanded by a generalCORPS- composed of three divisions, commanded by a generalDIVISION- composed of three to four brigades, commanded by a generalBRIGADE- composed of four to six regiments, commanded by a generalREGIMENT- composed of ten companies, commanded by a colonelCOMPANY- 100 officers and men, commanded by a captain. Military Organization
MILITARY STRATEGY AND TACTICS Military strategy and tactics are essential to the conduct of warfare. • Strategy is the planning, coordination, and general direction of military operations to meet overall political and military objectives. • Tactics implement strategy by short-term decisions on the movement of troops and employment of weapons on the field of battle. (20th C. term: operational strategy) The great military theorist Carl von Clausewitz put it another way: "Tactics is the art of using troops in battle; strategy is the art of using battles to win the war."
MILITARY STRATEGY AND TACTICS • Military commanders and theorists throughout history have formulated what they considered to be the most important strategic and tactical principles of war. Napoleon I, for example, had 115 such principles. The Confederate general Nathan Bedford Forrest had but one: "Get there first with the most men." • Some of the most commonly cited principles are: • the objective • the offensive (Seize and exploit the initiative) • surprise • security • unity of command • economy of force, mass (concentration of superior forces at critical point) and maneuver • Advantage of offensive or defensive • Advantage of terrain; example the high ground
III. Mobilization for War • Q. How would you assess each sides chances for winning? • A. Advantage belonged to… Manufacturing Railroad Lines Manpower 5:2
III. Mobilization for War • A. Union Advantages (Cont.) • Professional army & navy • Centralized gov. • B. Confederate Advantages • Defensive war • Home ground • Size: obstacle to North
III. Mobilization for War • C. Generals • USA: Ulysses S. Grant & William T. Sherman • CSA: Robert E. Lee & Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson • Training: West Point • Flank v frontal assaults • D. International alliance? • Am. Revolution precedent • Q. How would you assess each sides chances for winning?
III. Mobilization for War • E. Strategic Military Planning • USA- Anaconda Plan • Naval Blockade • Mississippi River • Richmond • CSA • Defensive • Alliance • Eastern & Western Theater of War
For Discussion • Which is most potent on a battlefield where force and its employment drive combat outcomes? • Numbers, technology, & tactics? • Or • Operational and tactical intelligence?
IV. Early Years of the War 1861-1862 • F. First major battle: Battle of Bull Run (Manassas) on July 21, 1861 • Victory for CSA when intelligence provided necessary reinforcements • Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson • USA- 1,500 casualties (1,200 missing) • CSA- 2,000 casualties
IV. Early Years of the War 1861-1862 • G. Naval blockade (Dec. 1861) • Blockade runners • Trent crisis • H. Western Theater • USA victories under Grant • Fort Henry • Fort Donelson • Nashville • Shiloh • New Orleans • Memphis
IV. Early Years of the War 1861-1862 • I. Eastern Theater • USA McClellan’s Peninsula Campaign (March-July 1862) • 1st phase ends indecisive (Robert E. Lee) • 2nd phase cavalry ride • 3rd phase Lee’s offensive at 7 Days Battle drives USA forces back • CSA Momentum: • 1st Battle of Bull Run • P. Campaign • 2nd Battle of Bull Run
V. Middle of the War 1862-1863 • Q. What impact does war have on public morale & will power? • CSA invades KY (W) and MD (E) • Motivations-logistics • Resulted in tactical stalemates • Sept. 1862 Antietam (Sharpsburg) • Bloodiest one day battle • 23,000 casualties • High casualty rates- modern weapons but old style formation
Animated Maps of Battlefields • First Bull Run http://civilwaranimated.com/first-manassas-east-38 • Antietam http://civilwaranimated.com/antietam-east-34 • Animated Chancellorsville http://civilwaranimated.com/chancellorsville-east-35 • Gettysburg animation http://civilwaranimated.com/GettysburgAnimation.html
V. Middle of the War 1862-1863 • Emancipation Proclamation (January 1, 1863) • All slaves in rebel states freed • Redefined goals of war: Preservation of Union & end of slavery
V. Middle of the War 1862-1863 • Draft laws • CSA Conscription Law: 18-35 served 3 year term (80% mobilized) • Union: Conscription Act (50% mobilized) • violent draft riots become race riots (ex. New York Draft Riot) • “Rich man’s war, poor man’s fight” • Influx of immigrants • Wealthy could hire substitutes • War time powers • North: Lincoln suspends habeas corpus • South: CSA as violating states rights • Waging War • Men, money, supplies
V. Middle of the War 1862-1863 • Lincoln expects results: Generals McClellan-Burnside-Hooker proved disapponting • Winter of 1862-’63: mixed record • West: Vicksburg & Stones River • East: Fredericksburg & Chancellorsville • Flank attack • Northern morale lowest
VI. Turning Points 1863 • Battle of Gettysburg (July 1-3 1863) • Motivation-logistics Day One
Gettysburg- Day Three 1/3 of Lee’s men die in famous Pickett’s Charge Union General Meade defeats Lee- total 50,000 casualties
VI. Turning Points 1863 (Cont.) • Union victories: • Gettysburg (July 3rd) • Fall of Vicksburg (July 4th) • Chattanooga (Nov. 25th) • Tide of CSA victories reversed • Q. Should the CSA have avoided invading the United States?
VI. Turning Points 1863 • Gettysburg Address: consecration of ground and principles of the nation You know the opening line… “government of the people, by the people, and for the people”
VII. Prolonged Defeat of the Confederacy 1864-1865 • Q. Was military defeat or loss of will more important in bringing ultimate Confederate failure? • Home Front • Both sides shared: loss of life, serving in military • CSA: destruction of property, military occupation, civilian displacement, inflation, 1/5 of male population dies, defeat
VII. Prolonged Defeat of the Confederacy 1864-1865 • Grant’s Strategy 1864 • Grant v Lee: take Richmond • Sherman strike economic & transportation base • Bloody campaign season • Union victories: • Mobile • Atlanta • Shenandoah Valley • Lincoln secures re-election
VII. Prolonged Defeat of the Confederacy 1864-1865 • Sherman’s March to the Sea • Atlanta to Savannah- 60 miles • Concept of total war • Hardship to home front
VII. Prolonged Defeat of the Confederacy 1864-1865 • 1865 9 Months of Siege warfare (Grant v Lee) • Petersburg (April 1st) • Richmond (April 2nd) • Appomattox (April 9th 1865 • Surrender of Lee
VII. Prolonged Defeat of the Confederacy 1864-1865 • Wartime Reconstruction Plans • Lincoln’s 10% Plan • Unpopular with radical Republicans in Congress • Alternative the Wade-Davis Bill- pocket veto by Lincoln • Ironclad Oath: must swear had never voluntarily taken up arms against the United States • Attempt to bar ex-Confederates from political power • 13th Amendment ended slavery • Approved by Congress Feb. 1865 • Ratified by the States in Dec. 1865
VII. Prolonged Defeat of the Confederacy 1864-1865 • April 14, 1865 Lincoln assassinated by John Wilkes Booth at Ford’s Theater • Lee’s surrender and Lincoln’s death ended the war
VIII. Conclusion • 620,000 lives • Secession illegal • Superiority of central government