Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports (PBL): Lessons Learned – Part I George Sugai OSEP Center on PBIS Center for Behavioral Education & Research University of Connecticut Sep 15 2011 www.pbis.orgwww.scalingup.orgwww.cber.org
PURPOSE Examination of lessons learned from 15 years of PBIS (PBL) implementation • Keynote overview: All • Follow-up: Administrators, coordinators, coaches, trainers, evaluators • Coaching: Administrators, coordinators, coaches, trainers, evaluators
8 Big Lessons (9 data pt 2)
SWPBS Logic! Successful individual student behavior support is linked to host environments or school climates that are effective, efficient, relevant, durable, scalable, & logical for all students (Zins & Ponti, 1990)
2. Teach behavior like academic skills, explicitly & deliberately
DEFINE Simply ADJUST for Efficiency MONITOR & ACKNOWLEDGE Continuously MODEL PRACTICE In Setting 57 Teaching Academics & Behaviors
2. NATURAL CONTEXT 1. SOCIAL SKILL Expectations 3. BEHAVIOR EXAMPLES
SWPBS (aka PBIS/RtI) is Framework
Integrated Elements Supporting Social Competence & Academic Achievement OUTCOMES 15 Supporting Decision Making Supporting Staff Behavior DATA SYSTEMS PRACTICES Supporting Student Behavior
Team GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS: “Getting Started” Agreements Data-based Action Plan Evaluation Implementation
Tertiary Prevention: Specialized Individualized Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior CONTINUUM OF SCHOOL-WIDE INSTRUCTIONAL & POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT FEW ~5% Secondary Prevention: Specialized Group Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior ~15% SOME Primary Prevention: School-/Classroom- Wide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings 23 ALL ~80% of Students
23 Continuum of Support for ALL Few Some All Dec 7, 2007
Continuum of Support for ALL “Theora” Math Science Spanish Reading Soc skills Soc Studies Basketball Label behavior…not people Dec 7, 2007
Continuum of Support for ALL: “Molcom” Anger man. Prob Sol. Ind. play Adult rel. Self-assess Attend. Coop play Peer interac Label behavior…not people Dec 7, 2007
Maximum Student Benefits Fixsen & Blase, 2009
Start w/ What Works Focus on Fidelity Detrich, Keyworth, & States (2007). J. Evid.-based Prac. in Sch.
SWPBS Implementation Blueprint www.pbis.org
Behaviorism Laws of Behavior SWPBS Conceptual Foundations ABA Applied Behavioral Technology PBS Social Validity SWPBS All Students
RCT & Group Design PBIS Studies • Reduced major disciplinary infractions • Improvements in academic achievement • Enhanced perception of organizational health & safety • Improved school climate • Reductions in teacher reported bullying behavior Bradshaw, C.P., Koth, C.W., Thornton, L.A., & Leaf, P.J. (2009). Altering school climate through school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports: Findings from a group-randomized effectiveness trial. Prevention Science, 10(2), 100-115 Bradshaw, C.P., Koth, C.W., Bevans, K.B., Ialongo, N., & Leaf, P.J. (2008). The impact of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) on the organizational health of elementary schools. School Psychology Quarterly, 23(4), 462-473. Bradshaw, C. P., Mitchell, M. M., & Leaf, P. J. (2010). Examining the effects of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on student outcomes: Results from a randomized controlled effectiveness trial in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 12, 133-148. Bradshaw, C.P., Reinke, W. M., Brown, L. D., Bevans, K.B., & Leaf, P.J. (2008). Implementation of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) in elementary schools: Observations from a randomized trial. Education & Treatment of Children, 31, 1-26. Horner, R., Sugai, G., Smolkowski, K., Eber, L., Nakasato, J., Todd, A., & Esperanza, J., (2009). A randomized, wait-list controlled effectiveness trial assessing school-wide positive behavior support in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11, 133-145. Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., & Anderson, C. M. (2010). Examining the evidence base for school-wide positive behavior support. Focus on Exceptionality, 42(8), 1-14.
Academic-Behavior Connection “Viewed as outcomes, achievement and behavior are related; viewed as causes of each other, achievement and behavior are unrelated. In this context, teaching behavior as relentlessly as we teach reading or other academic content is the ultimate act of prevention, promise, and power underlying PBS and other preventive interventions in America’s schools.” Algozzine, Wang, & Violette (2011), p. 16. Algozzine, B., Wang, C., & Violette, A. S. (2011). Reexamining the relationship between academic achievement and social behavior. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions, 13, 3-16. Burke, M. D., Hagan-Burke, S., & Sugai, G. (2003). The efficacy of function-based interventions for students with learning disabilities who exhibit escape-maintained problem behavior: Preliminary results from a single case study. Learning Disabilities Quarterly, 26, 15-25. McIntosh, K., Chard, D. J., Boland, J. B., & Horner, R. H. (2006). Demonstration of combined efforts in school-wide academic and behavioral systems and incidence of reading and behavior challenges in early elementary grades. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions, 8, 146-154. McIntosh, K., Horner, R. H., Chard, D. J., Dickey, C. R., and Braun, D. H. (2008). Reading skills and function of problem behavior in typical school settings. Journal of Special Education, 42, 131-147. Nelson, J. R., Johnson, A., & Marchand-Martella, N. (1996). Effects of direct instruction, cooperative learning, and independent learning practices on the classroom behavior of students with behavioral disorders: A comparative analysis. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 4, 53-62. Wang, C., & Algozzine, B. (2011). Rethinking the relationship between reading and behavior in early elementary school. Journal of Educational Research, 104, 100-109.
Sample Teaming Matrix Are outcomes measurable?
17 SWPBS Practices School-wide Classroom • Smallest # • Evidence-based • Biggest, durable effect Family Non-classroom Student & Family
ESTABLISHING CONTINUUM of SWPBS • TERTIARY PREVENTION • Function-based support • Wraparound • Person-centered planning • TERTIARY PREVENTION ~5% ~15% • SECONDARY PREVENTION • Check in/out • Targeted social skills instruction • Peer-based supports • Social skills club • SECONDARY PREVENTION • PRIMARY PREVENTION • Teach SW expectations • Proactive SW discipline • Positive reinforcement • Effective instruction • Parent engagement • PRIMARY PREVENTION ~80% of Students
Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports (PBL): Lessons Learned - Part II George Sugai OSEP Center on PBIS Center for Behavioral Education & Research University of Connecticut Sep 15 2011 www.pbis.orgwww.scalingup.orgwww.cber.org
FROM Decrease in suspensions at Dubbo TO Triangle data at Glenroi Heights FROM Parent Letter at Buninyong TO Good New Postcard at Orange East FROM Yindyamarra, Bilingarra, Yawandyilinya at Parkes TO Casual Teacher Portfolio at Dubbo FROM PBL in Classroom at Delroy TO Playground Observations at Middletown PBL in Western NSW
Translate for staff. • Give kid-examples for staff. • Recommend teacher to Executive. • Support a peer. • “How am I doing?”“How’s this look? !!!
Upcoming Events www.pbis.org/network
PURPOSE Supporting & extending data • Keynote overview: All • Follow-up: Administrators, coordinators, coaches, trainers, evaluators • Coaching: Administrators, coordinators, coaches, trainers, evaluators
Keys to Success SWPBS Logic! Successful individual student behavior support is linked to host environments or school climates that are effective, efficient, relevant, durable, scalable, & logical for all students (Zins & Ponti, 1990)
Keys to Success Systems Implementation Logic
23 Classroom Implementation Behavior Continuum Academic Continuum PBL Integrated Continuum Mar 10 2010